Pages

Wednesday, August 26, 2009

Australia neglecting needs of IDPs in Eastern Burma



Australia neglecting needs of IDPs in Eastern Burma
Tuesday, 25 August 2009 16:36 By Sai Awn Tai

Australia is neglecting what the Australian people want and what the right thing to do is for the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in eastern Burma, said Dr John Kaye, NSW Greens MP.

During the last week about 10,000 people from Shan State fled from their homes after the military attacked and burned down the villages.

Burma advocacy campaigners Nang Charm Tong and her colleagues from the Thai-Burma border have urged the Australian government to change its foreign aid policy to assist Shan, Karen and other ethnic IDPs.

[Nang Charm Tong]

Nang Charm Tong

They met Mr Bob McMullan, the parliamentary secretary for international development assistance on 19 August to press AusAid to change its policy.

“Mr McMullan was sympathized and said that he will talk with his government colleagues but the result is unlikely to come overnight.

“This is our first step on this advocacy campaigning. We will continue to lobby until the Australian government changes its cross-border aid policy,” said Charm Tong.

Australian foreign aid has increased from $A16 million to 29 million for Burma but none of this money will assist the IDPs and last year, only $A1.2 million went to refugees who live in refugee camps at the Thai-Burma border.

The Burmese community in Australia, surprised by the AusAid policy, has asked questions why the Australian government does not assist the cross-border people who urgently need assistance for health care and food.

“There appear to be strong links between the Australian government and the military regime,” said Paul Power, the Chief Executive Officer of Refugee Council of Australia.

“I would like to question the nature of cooperation between the Australian government and the government of Burma” he said.

“The Australian government is quite reluctant to provide aid assistance to the IDPs in eastern Burma saying it has to respect the sovereignty of Thailand and Burma. They are also worried about the risk factor on the ground if they provide cross-border assistance to the IDPs.”

“In addition, they want to focus the humanitarian assistance through Rangoon,” said Dr Myint Cho, the director of Australia Burma Campaign.

However, Dr John Kaye believes that AusAid can also fund cross-border programs to IDPs without affecting their programs already being funded in Burma.

“If we look at countries like Canada, Norway, Denmark and US who do give funds to IDPs, they have also continued to operate their programs through Rangoon without problems from the military regime,” he said.

www.shanland.org

News Asia-Pacific Malaysian woman spared caning



News Asia-Pacific Malaysian woman spared caning


News Asia-Pacific
Malaysian woman spared caning

Kartika was taken into custody briefly before being abruptly released [AFP]

Religious officials in Malaysia have freed a Muslim mother of two who had been sentenced to be caned for drinking beer in a hotel.

In a surprise announcement on Monday, an official from the state of Pahang's Islamic Affairs department said Kartika Sari Dewi Shukarno, 32, had been freed on orders from "higher authorities".

"The warrant cannot be executed," Sharafuddin Zainal Ariffin, head of enforcement for the state of Pahang's Islamic Affairs Department, told reporters after Kartika was returned to her parents' home.

It was not immediately clear whether the sentence - six strokes of the cane - had been overturned or postponed.

Kartika had earlier been taken into custody for transportation to a prison near Kuala Lumpur, where she had been expected to be lashed six times with a rattan cane.

But after moving a short distance the vehicle halted for at least half an hour before turning around and returning to the house.

Badaruddin Ahmad Bustami, an Islamic department official, said prison representatives had suddenly informed department authorities who took custody of Kartika that they "cannot accept her", without giving any reason.

"We don't know what to do. We will discuss this with the sharia court" to determine whether the sentence should be waived, Badaruddin told the Associated Press news agency.

Uncertainty

The former part-time model, who had earlier told Al Jazeera that she had accepted the sentence and asked to be caned in public as an example to other Muslims, had at first refused to get out of the van when told she was being released.

"I'm afraid that people will make fun of the religion. Don't make my daughter a toy to play with"

Shukarno Mutalib,
Kartika's father
"I am speechless but I'm not getting out of the vehicle, I want to know what my status is. I want a black and white statement from them," she told reporters from inside the van.

Her father, Shukarno Mutalib, said the about-face could reflect badly on Islam.

"We had already accepted the punishment," he said. "My daughter wants the sentence to be done. I'm afraid that people will make fun of the religion.

"Don't make my daughter a toy to play with."

He added that he and his daughter planned to file statements about the abrupt release at a district police station as they were worried officials might later accuse his daughter of running away from them.

Kartika was convicted in July by a sharia court after state religious authorities caught her drinking alcohol when they raided a hotel nightclub.

The nurse would have been the first woman in Malaysia to be caned by the authorities.

Malaysia, which has large Chinese and Indian communities, uses a dual-track legal system where sharia courts can try Muslims for religious and moral offences under Islamic law.

Alcohol is widely available in the country but is forbidden for the majority Muslim community, who make up just over half the population.

Muslims can be fined, jailed for up to three years or given six strokes of the cane for drinking alcohol, but prosecutions are extremely rare.
Source: Agencies

Sunday, August 23, 2009

Burma Army beheads woman




Burma Army beheads woman
Thursday, 06 August 2009 17:18 Hseng Khio Fah

A local woman in Mongkeung Township, southern Shan State was beheaded by the Burma Army troops that have been launching a four-cut campaign since 27 July , according to villagers who recently fled to Thailand.

In the morning of 3 August, Nang Hsoi, 29, from Wan Kart village, Ho Khai village tract was arrested in her village by soldiers from Mongkeung based Light Infantry Battalion (LIB)#514 after falsely accusing her as the wife of a Shan State Army (SSA) ‘South’ fighter and collaboration with the SSA, said a local villager who asked not to be named. nbsp;
“In the evening they [soldiers] took her to a bridge nearby the village, cut her head down and threw it into the creek,” he said.

Two days before her death, over 10 villagers from Wan Kart, Wan Kawng and Wan Long village were detained on suspicion of being SSA spies at the army base.

The Burma Army that has been the four-cut campaign (cutting food, funds, intelligence and recruits to the armed resistance by local populace) had ordered villagers in Mongkeung, Kehsi and Laikha townships to leave their homes within 5 days, from 1 to 5 August.

Since then, at least 300 houses in the three townships were razed to the ground and more than 300 villagers were forcibly relocated to the town, said a source.

The campaign drive was led by the Mongnawng – based Military Operations Command (MOC) #2 command: Loilem based IB#9, and #12, Laikha based IB#64 and LIB#515, Namzang based IB#66 , #247 and LIB#516, Mongnai based IB#248 and LIB#518, Panglong based LIB#513, Mongkeung based LIB#514 and Mongpawn based LIB#517.

To date, 21 villages from Panghsang village tract and 9 villages from Wan Htee village tract in Laikha township alone were forced to resettle in Marklang quarter of the town.

During the drive some were beaten and some were reportedly killed, forcing many others to hide in the jungle, said another villager who is seeking asylum on the Thai-Burma border.

“There were some people who are hiding in the jungle preparing to seek refuge in Thailand,” she said, “Many people will be coming soon.”

Currently, about 10 people are seeking asylum in areas near Thailand.

During the last engagement on 15 July, the Burma Army’s LIB 515 suffered 11 killed, 1 captured and 5 assorted weapons lost.

During the 1996-98 campaign against the SSA, 1,500 villages were destroyed and more than 300,000 in southern and eastern Shan State were forcibly relocated, a third of which had escaped into Thailand.

Gang-rape follows Four-Cuts
Friday, 07 August 2009 17:37 Hseng Khio Fah

Latest reports of the Burma Army’s four-cut campaign said that a Shan woman from Shan State South’s Laikha township was gang raped in front of her husband by the Burma Army that has been waging a four-cut campaign since late July.

The couple was identified as Sai Awta, 23, and her wife Nang Noom, 20 (not their real names), from the 31 household Wan Nawngpoke village, Tarkmawk village tract, Laikha Township, said a source.

The incident occurred only a half of mile south of the village on August 2 at 5 pm, when three privates led by Sergeant Tin Aye from Mongkeung based Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #514 was on patrol and found the said couple while they were working in their farm. The group detained them after accusing of being members of the SSA-South.

Some soldiers separated Sai Awta from his wife, tied him with a rope to a post of the hut and beaten him while others raped her wife in front of him in turn including the Sergeant until midnight. After that, the couple was warned not to spread news of the rape, said Sai Awta’s friend who declined to be named.

“They [soldiers] threatened them not to tell anybody; otherwise their family and both of them would be killed,” he said.

On that day, a 25 strong patrol from the battalion together with 14 men of pro-junta Mongzeun militia group (formally Brigade 758 of the Shan State Army (SSA) ‘South’ that surrendered in July 2006) arrived at the village.

It was led by Lt Myint Than and the militia group was led by Sai Yoong whose leader Mongzeun was killed in an attack by the SSA on 25 May.

“Villagers were given a deadline to leave their houses, if not all houses would be burnt down,” said a local source who wishes to remain in anonymity.

A clash between LIB#515 and SSA fighters on 15 July in Laikha township has led hundreds of villagers in Laikha, Kehsi and Mongkeung townships suffer from several human rights violations.

“License to Rape,” a report by the Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN), which was published in 2002, detailing 173 incidents of rape and involving 625 women and girls, had shaken the international community.

Loading...










Teenage girl gang raped
Tuesday, 11 August 2009 16:09 Hseng Khio Fah

A 15 year old girl in southern Shan State’s Kehsi Township, was gang raped by a local based Burma Army patrol, during she and her 8 year old younger sister were on their way to look for their livestock.

At about 10:00 am on 5 August, the elder one named Nang Nang, daughter of Long Herng and Pa Hsai (not their real names) hailing from Wan Keng village, Kehsi village tract, was gang raped by some 6 soldiers from the Kehsi based Infantry Battalion (IB) # 132, while she and her sister Nawng Nawng were looking for their cows.

On that day, a 30 strong patrol from IB #132 led by Captain San Aye were patrolling around the areas in search of the rebels, and found the two girls half a mile from the village.

The captain stopped the two girls and ordered them to follow him for a while after he ordered most of his unit to go ahead, said a local villager who wishes not to be named.

“He [Captain] and his men then raped Nang Nang in turns,” she said.

The two were released after their [soldiers]’s desire were fulfilled and reached home in fear and frustration as they were threatened that they both and their family would be killed if they were to disclose the matter to anyone, the source further added.

“Even if you tell others, no one can punish us because all of you are living under the Burma Army’s rule,” she quoted the captain as saying.

However, the youngest one could not bear it any longer and told her family and other villagers about the incident happened to her elder sister, but the family and the village headman did not dare to complain for fear of further punishment by the army, she said.

On 2 August, a 20 year old woman from Shan State South’s Laikha township was also gang raped in front of her husband by the Mongkeung based Light Infantry Battalion (LIB)#514 that has been waging a four-cut campaign in areas where the Burma Army and the Shan State Army (SSA) ‘South’ fought in the mid July.

After the clash, battalions under the Mongnawng based Military Operation Command (MOC) #2 started waging a four-cut campaign ((cutting food, funds, intelligence and recruits to the armed resistance by local populace) in Kehsi, Mongkeung and Laikha townships, Shan State South.

Since then, hundreds of villagers from the areas have been suffered several human rights abuses such as sexual violence and killing.

On 3 August, a 29 year old woman in Mongkeung Township, was beheaded by the same LIB#514 after she was falsely accused of being a wife of SSA fighter.
Rights groups to regime: Stop atrocities
Thursday, 13 August 2009 17:30 Hseng Khio Fah

Again, overseas Shan rights groups are on calling the Burmese military immediately stop its atrocities and also on the international and regional communities to end their silence and set up an investation team on the regime’s crimes against humanity.

Since 27 July, Burma Army units under the command of the Mongnawng based Military Operations Command (MOC) #2, Shan State South, have burned down over 500 houses, more than 200 granaries, and forcibly relocated an estimated 10,000 villagers from almost 40 villages in Mongkeung, Laikha and Kehsi townships, according to the rights groups.

“We are therefore demanding the regime immediately stop their atrocities against people the and allow all relocated villagers to return to their homes,” said Nang Charm Tong from Shan Women Action’s Network (SWAN) at a press conference held today on the Thai-Burma border.

“On the other hand, we would like to call on the international communities such as the United Nations Security Council, ASEAN and Burma’s neighbors to pressure Burma to stop its oppression on the people. They should not let Burma continue abusing the people,” she added.

According to her, the current forced relocation campaign is the largest forced relocation since 1996-1998, when over 300,000 villagers were uprooted in southern and central Shan State, most of whom have since fled to Thailand.
“This is another attempt to uproot the ethnic people,” she said.

During the 1996-98 campaign against the SSA, almost 1,500 villages were destroyed and more than 300,000 in southern and eastern Shan State were forcibly relocated, a third of which had escaped into Thailand.

“The troops were ordered by their headquarters to burn down the houses, as they repeatedly radioed to their headquarters as the buildings went up in flames,” said Shan Human Rights Foundation’s Director Kham Harn Fah.
"This campaign has been carried out cold-bloodedly and systematically,” he added.

The Burma Army earlier retaliated the Pa-O National Liberation Organization (PNLO) that had wiped out a 12-men patrol on 3 May by killing two village headmen, torturing more than 80 villagers and gangraped a 15-year old girl in Hsihseng, another southern Shan State township, according to several exile news groups.
www. shanland.org

Friday, August 14, 2009

ေမတၱာ၏အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးမ်ားႏွင့္ လက္ေတြ႔က်င့္ျခင္း


ေမတၱာ၏အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးမ်ား

စာေပမွာေဖာ္ျပတဲ့ ေမတၱာ၏အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးမ်ားမွာ ေအာက္ပါအတိုင္းျဖစ္တယ္…

(၁) ခ်မ္းခ်မ္းသာသာ အိပ္ေပ်ာ္ရတယ္။

(၂) ကိုယ္မွာ ေဖာက္ျပန္မႈမရွိဘဲ ခ်မ္းခ်မ္းသာသာ အိပ္ရာက ႏိုးရတယ္။

(၃) အိပ္မက္ေကာင္းေတြကိုပဲ ျမင္မက္ႏုိင္ၿပီး ယုတ္ညံ့ရြံ႕မုန္း ေၾကာက္လန္႔ဖြယ္ အိပ္မက္မ်ား

မမက္ရဘူး။

(၄) လူအေပါင္းက ခ်စ္ခင္ျမတ္ႏိုးတယ္။

(၅) မျမင္ရတဲ့ နတ္မ်ားကလည္း ခ်စ္ခင္ၾကတယ္။

(၆) မိဘက သားသမီးကို ေစာင့္ေရွာက္သလို နတ္မ်ားကလည္း ေမတၱာပြားသူကို

ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ၾကတယ္။

(၇) ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာပြားတဲ့သူကို မီး၊ အဆိပ္၊ လက္နက္ေတြရဲ႕ ေဘးရန္ မက်ေရာက္ဘူး။

(၈) ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာႏွင့္ေနေလ့ရွိတဲ့ပုဂၢိဳလ္ဟာ စိတ္တည္ၾကည္လြယ္ၿပီး

သမာဓိျဖစ္လြယ္တယ္။

(၉) မ်က္ႏွာ အၿမဲပဲ ၾကည္ၾကည္လင္လင္ရွိတယ္။

(၁၀) အိပ္ေပ်ာ္သြားသလိုပဲ မေတြမေ၀ မပင္မပန္း ေသလြန္ရတယ္။

(၁၁) နိဗၺာန္ကို မရေသးေသာ္လည္း ယခုလူ႔ဘ၀စုေတၿပီးေနာက္ အိပ္ေပ်ာ္ရာမွႏိုးလာသလိုပဲ
ျဗဟၼာ့ျပည္မွာ ျဖစ္ရတယ္။



ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာပြားၿပီးေနတဲ့သူဟာ အသက္ရွင္ေနဆဲဘ၀မွာ လူခ်စ္တယ္၊ နတ္ခ်စ္တယ္၊ ႀကံတုိင္းေအာင္ၿပီး ေဆာင္တိုင္းေျမာက္တယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းက ဘ၀မွာ ေနဖို႔ေရာ၊ ေသဖို႔ကိုပါ အားကိုးႏိုင္ေလာက္တဲ့ ကမၼ႒ာန္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ေမတၱာပြားၿပီးေနတဲ့ပုဂၢိဳလ္တစ္ဦးဟာ ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ေလာကတစ္ခုလံုးမွာရွိတဲ့ ျမင္ရမျမင္ရသတၱ၀ါအားလံုးရဲ႕အက်ဳိးကို သယ္ပိုးေဆာင္ရြက္ေနသူလည္းျဖစ္တယ္။ သူ႔ပတ္၀န္းက်င္တစ္ခုလံုး ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းတယ္၊ ေအးျမတယ္၊ နတ္မ်ားလည္း အခ်င္းခ်င္း ခ်စ္ခင္ၾကတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ သာဓကေတြ အမ်ားႀကီးရွိတယ္၊ ယံုယံုၾကည္ၾကည္ ႀကိဳးႀကိဳးစားစား အားထုတ္ၾကပါ။

ႏိုင္ငံျခားသြားၿပီး အလုပ္လုပ္တဲ့သူေတြ ေဘးရန္ကင္းဖို႔၊ အစိုးရဌာနေတြမွာ ကုမၸဏီေတြမွာ ရာထူးရဖို႔၊ အထက္လူႀကီးရဲ႕ခ်စ္ခင္မ်က္ႏွာသာေပးမႈရလာဖို႔ဆိုၿပီး အေဆာင္ေတြလက္ဖြဲ႕ေတြလုပ္ၾကတာထက္ မိမိရဲ႕ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာစြမ္းအားကိုသာ တင္းတင္းရင္းရင္း ၀ီရိယစိုက္ၿပီး ႀကိဳးစားအားထုတ္လိုက္ၾကပါ။ ရန္လည္းလံု၊ လူလည္းခ်စ္၊ နတ္လည္းခ်စ္၊ စိတ္အႀကံလည္း ၿပီးေျမာက္ေအာင္ျမင္လို႔ ပီယသိဒၶိေအာင္ေနသူလို႔ကို ေဘးက ထင္ရလာပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ဒီ့ထက္ေကာင္းမြန္တဲ့ ယၾတာလက္ဖြဲ႔မရွိပါဘူး။


ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္း လက္ေတြ႔႐ႈပြားနည္း


တစ္ဖက္သားကို ခ်မ္းသာေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ေတြ၊ ေကာင္းစားေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ေတြ၊ ေဘးရန္ကင္းေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ေတြ အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္ အထပ္ထပ္ အဖန္ဖန္ ျဖစ္ေစတာကို ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာလို႔ ဆိုႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

အဲဒီလိုစိတ္ေတြပြားေအာင္ မ်ားေအာင္ အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္အဖန္ဖန္ ျပဳလုပ္ေနတာကိုေတာ့ ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာပြားတယ္လို႔ ဆိုႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

စိတ္ရဲ႕အေပၚယံပိုင္းကေန ပြားေန႐ုံမွ် မျဖစ္ေစဘဲ မိမိစိတ္ရဲ႕ အတြင္းပိုင္း၊ အနက္႐ႈိင္းဆံုးကေန ေမတၱာပြားရင္ ေမတၱာအင္အား စူးရွထက္ျမက္လာမွာျဖစ္တယ္၊ ႏႈတ္ကေန သာမာန္ရြတ္ဆို႐ုံမွ်နဲ႔ ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာ ပြားတယ္ မမည္ေသးပါဘူး။

ပါဠိ ေ၀ါဟာရအေနနဲ႔ ပြားမ်ားမယ္ဆိုရင္ေတာ့..

“အေ၀ရာ ေဟာႏၲဳ

အဗ်ာပဇၨာ ေဟာႏၲဳ

အနီဃာ ေဟာႏၲဳ

သုခီအတၱာနံ ပရိဟရႏၲဳလို႔ အႀကိမ္ ရာေထာင္မက ႏွလံုးသြင္း ပြားမ်ားေနရပါမယ္။


ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္း႐ႈပြားမည့္သူဟာ ေမတၱာရဲ႕အင္အား ေမတၱာရဲ႕စြမ္းအင္ကို သံသယမရွိ ယံုၾကည့္ဖို႔က အရင္းခံ ပဓာနက်ပါတယ္။ ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္း ႐ႈပြားရာမွာ ေ၀ါဟာရစကားလံုးရဲ႕အနက္ ေပၚလြင္ထင္ရွားမႈကလည္း အေရးပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ အတိုဆံုးႏွင့္ အနက္ထိမိၿပီး အဓိပၸာယ္လည္း က်ယ္ျပန္႔တဲ့ ျမန္မာေ၀ါဟာရကေတာ့ “က်န္းမာပါေစ၊ ခ်မ္းသာပါေစ”လို႔ပဲ သံုးႏႈန္းၿပီး ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာ ပြားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။


ႀကိဳတင္သိထားရမယ့္ အခ်က္ေတြကေတာ့..

၁။ ေမတၱာရဲ႕အင္အားစြမ္းအင္ကို ယံုၾကည္ဖို႔ ႀကိဳတင္ေလ့လာဆည္းပူးထားရမယ့္အျပင္

၂။ ေမတၱာခံယူမယ့္ သက္ေတာ္ထင္ရွားၿပီး မိမိအေပၚ အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးႀကီးမားတဲ့ လူပုဂၢိဳလ္၊

ရဟန္းပုဂၢိဳလ္ (၅)ဦးခန္႔ကို ဦးစြာေရြးခ်ယ္ထားၿပီး ျဖစ္ရပါမယ္။

၃။ ေမတၱာကို အရပ္မ်က္ႏွာမ်ားႏွင့္ လူပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ားကို ပို႔လႊတ္တဲ့အခါမွာ မိမိပို႔လႊတ္ရာကို

ေမတၱာလိႈင္းမ်ား ေရာက္ႏိုင္တယ္လို႔လည္း ႀကိဳတင္သိထားရမယ္။

ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာပြားတာ အေလ့အက်င့္အားေကာင္းသြားတဲ့အခါမွာေတာ့ ေမတၱာလႈိင္းေတြ မိမိခႏၶာကိုယ္က ျဖာထြက္ၿပီး ပို႔တဲ့ဆီကို ေရာက္တယ္လို႔ ကိုယ္တုိင္ သေဘာက်ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

၄။ ဒါေပမယ့္ ေမတၱာပြားတဲ့ေနရာမွာ ကိုယ္က်ဳိးစီးပြားရလိုမႈ လံုးလံုးကို မပါသင့္ပါဘူး။

ေမတၱာခံယူသူအတြက္ ခ်မ္းသာေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္၊ ေကာင္းစားေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္သာ ရွိေနရပါမယ္။

၅။ “ၾသဓိသေမတၱာ” ပုဂၢိဳလ္ရည္ညႊန္းၿပီး ပို႔တဲ့အခါမွာေတာ့ ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္ မိမိေရွ႕မွာ

မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ ထိုင္ေနတယ္လို႔ကို စိတ္ညြတ္ၿပီး အဲဒီပုဂၢိဳလ္ မ်က္ႏွာသ႑ာန္ကို စိတ္ထဲ ပံုေဖာ္ျမင္ေအာင္ၾကည့္ၿပီး ရာေထာင္မက ေမတၱာပြားရပါတယ္။

၆။ ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းမပြားခင္ ဦးစြာ ဘုရားရွိခိုးတာ သီလခံယူေဆာက္တည္တာ စတဲ့ ပုဗၺကိစၥ

ႀကိဳတင္ျပင္ဆင္မႈမ်ားကိုေတာ့ ေဆာင္ရြက္ၿမဲအတိုင္း ေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

၇။ အစပိုင္း ေလ့က်င့္ခါစမွာေတာ့ တစ္ႀကိမ္ကို မိနစ္၃၀စီ သတ္မွတ္ၿပီး အႀကိမ္မ်ားမ်ားကို

ထိုင္တဲ့ ဣရိယာပုထ္ႏွင့္သာ ပြားသင့္ပါတယ္။ ေနရာက်ၿပီဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ေနာက္ပိုင္း သိပ္ကို လြယ္ကူပါတယ္။ ေမတၱာပြားၿပီးေနရတာ သက္သာတယ္၊ ေပါ့ပါးတယ္၊ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းတယ္၊ ဒီလိုအေတြ႔အႀကံဳရွိလာတဲ့ ေယာဂီပုဂၢိဳလ္ဟာ ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းကို မပြားဘဲ မေနႏိုင္ေတာ့ပါဘူး။ အလိုလိုပဲ စိတ္က ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္း ပြားၿပီးသားျဖစ္ေနတတ္ပါတယ္။

၈။ ေလ်ာင္း၊ ထိုင္၊ ရပ္၊ သြားဆိုတဲ့ ဣရိယာပုထ္ ၄မ်ဳိးထဲမွ အလ်ဥ္းသင့္သလို တစ္မ်ဳိးမ်ဳိးနဲ႔ ပို႔ႏိုင္ ပြားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ေလးေလးနက္နက္ျဖစ္ဖို႔ရာအတြက္သာ ထိုင္တဲ့ဣရိယာပုထ္ကို ညႊန္ျပတာပါ။ (တိဌံစရံနိ သိေႏၷာ၀ သယာေနာ- ေမတၱာသုတ္)

၉။ ေသၿပီးသူကို အာ႐ုံျပဳၿပီး ေမတၱာမပြားရဘူး။ ေသၿပီးသူဟာ ေမတၱာအာ႐ုံယူဖို႔

မျဖစ္ႏုိင္ေတာ့တာမို႔ ေသၿပီးသူကို အာ႐ုံျပဳၿပီး ေမတၱာမပြားရပါဘူး။

(အမွ်ေ၀လိုက ေ၀ဖို႔ပဲရွိပါတယ္)

၁၀။ ေရွးဦးစြာ ေမတၱာအာ႐ုံနိမိတ္ယူၿပီး မပြားရတဲ့ပုဂၢိဳလ္၄မ်ဳိးကေတာ့

(၁) မုန္းသူ

(၂) အလြန္ခ်စ္သူ

(၃) မခ်စ္မမုန္းသူႏွင့္

(၄) ရန္သူတို႔ ျဖစ္တယ္။

အေၾကာင္းမွာ- မုန္းေနတဲ့သူ၊ ရန္သူေတြကို ခ်မ္းသာေကာင္းစားေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ျဖစ္ဖို႔ ခက္တဲ့အျပင္ ဦးစြာ ေမတၱာပို႔မိရင္ ေမတၱာရဲ႕ဆန္႔က်င္ဘက္ ေဒါသ၊ အာဃာတတို႔သာ ျဖစ္ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ ဒီသူ၂ဦးကို ဦးစြာ ေမတၱာမပြားရပါဘူး။

အလြန္ခ်စ္ခင္တဲ့သူ အေပၚမွာလည္း တဏွာေပမစိတ္ ရင့္သန္ႀကီးထြားေနလို႔ ေမတၱာစိတ္ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ျပန္ဘူး။

အလယ္အလတ္ မခ်စ္မမုန္းသူရဲ႕အက်ဳိးစီးပြားကို လိုလားတဲ့ေမတၱာစိတ္ျဖစ္ဖို႔လည္း ခက္ခဲျပန္ပါတယ္။

ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ ဒီပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ဳိးေတြကို ဦးစြာ ေမတၱာမပြားရပါဘူး။ ေမတၱာစိတ္အစစ္အမွန္ျဖစ္ၿပီးတဲ့အခါမွာပဲ သူတို႔ကို ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

၁၁။ ဆန္႔က်င္ဘက္လိင္(ေယာက်္ားက မိန္းမကို၊ မိန္းမက ေယာက်္ားကို) ေမတၱာပြားမယ္ဆိုရင္လည္း ေမတၱာစိတ္မျဖစ္ဘဲ ရာဂစိတ္႐ိုင္းေတြျဖစ္လာႏိုင္တဲ့အတြက္ သတိျပဳရပါမယ္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ားအေနႏွင့္ သက္ေတာ္ထင္ရွား ေက်းဇူးရွင္ဆရာေတာ္ႀကီးမ်ားကို ေမတၱာအာ႐ုံထားၿပီး ဘာ၀နာပြားတဲ့အခါ မူမမွန္တဲ့စိတ္႐ုိင္းမ်ား မျဖစ္လာရင္ေတာ့ ေမတၱာပြားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။


ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းစတင္ပြားမ်ားျခင္း(သီးသန္႔က်င့္ျခင္း)


မိမိကိုယ္ကိုပဲ ေမတၱာစတင္ပြားပို႔ရပါမယ္၊ “က်န္းမာပါေစ၊ ခ်မ္းသာပါေစ”လို႔ အႀကိမ္ ရာေထာင္မက မိမိကိုယ္ကို ဦးစြာ ေမတၱာပြားပါ။ မိမိကိုယ္ကို ေမတၱာပြားရတာ အားရေက်နပ္ထားရင္ သူတစ္ပါးကို ေမတၱာပြားရတာ လြယ္ကူပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ဘာေၾကာင့္လဲဆိုရင္ အရပ္မ်ားကို စိတ္ျဖင့္ လွည့္လည္ရွာေသာ္လည္း မိမိကိုယ္ထက္သာၿပီး ခ်စ္ခင္ျမတ္ႏိုးသူကို မေတြ႔ႏိုင္ဘူးလို႔ ဘုရားရွင္ မိန္႔ေတာ္မူထားပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ မိမိကိုယ္ကို သက္ေသျပဳၿပီး ေမတၱာပို႔တာဟာ ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းမွာ အသင့္ေတာ္ဆံုးျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ၿပီးမွ သက္ေတာ္ထင္ရွားရွိၿပီး ေမတၱာစတင္မပြားရမည့္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္က လြတ္ကင္းၿပီး မိမိအေပၚ ေက်းဇူးႀကီးမားတဲ့ ဆရာသမား မိဘဘိုးဘြားေတြထဲက (၅)ဦးခန္႔ကို ႀကိဳတင္ေရြးခ်ယ္ထားရမယ္။ မိမိကိုယ္ကို ေမတၱာပို႔ၿပီးေနာက္ ေရြးခ်ယ္ထားတဲ့ ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္ကို မိမိအနား မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ထိုင္ေနသလို စိတ္၀ယ္မွတ္ၿပီး “က်န္းမာပါေစ၊ ခ်မ္းသာပါေစ၊ က်န္းမာပါေစ၊ ခ်မ္းပါေစ”လို႔ အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္ ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္တစ္ဦးအေပၚ ေက်နပ္ၿပီးမွ ေနာက္တစ္ဦးကို ေျပာင္းရမယ္၊ အကယ္၍ ေမတၱာပြားရတာ အခက္အခဲရွိလာရင္ေတာ့ မိမိကိုယ္ကိုပဲ ေမတၱာျပန္ပြားပါ၊ ၿပီးမွ ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္ကို ေျပာင္းယူပါ။

တခါတရံ အခ်ဳိ႕ပုဂၢိဳလ္ကို ေမတၱာပြားရတာ လြယ္ကူၿပီး မ်က္ႏွာပံုပန္းသ႑ာန္ ကြက္ကြက္ကြင္းကြင္း ၿပံဳးၿပံဳးရႊင္ရႊင္ ျမင္လာတတ္ေသာ္လည္း အခ်ဳိ႕ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေတြမွာက်ေတာ့ အခက္အခဲရွိေနတာလည္း ႀကံဳရတတ္တယ္။ အဲဒီအခါက်ရင္ လြယ္ကူတဲ့ ေမတၱာအာ႐ုံခံပုဂၢိဳလ္ေတြကို ဦးစားေပး ပြားရပါမယ္။

ေမတၱာစိတ္ ညီညႊတ္မွ်တေနၿပီဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ရန္သူ၊ မုန္းတဲ့သူ၊ အလြန္ခ်စ္တဲ့သူေတြကိုလည္း ပြားႏိုင္ပါၿပီ။

မိမိစိတ္ကို မိိမိၾကည္ညိဳဖူးမလားေတာ့မသိဘူး။ ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္တစ္ဦးကို စူးစိုက္ၿပီးေတာ့ က်န္းမာပါေစ၊ ခ်မ္းသာပါေစ၊ က်န္းမာပါေစလို႔ ႀကိမ္ဖန္မ်ားစြာ ေမတၱာပို႔ေနရင္ မိမိစိတ္ထဲမွာ တျခားအာ႐ုံေတြ၊ တျခားစိတ္ကူးေတြ ဘာမွေပၚမလာေတာ့ဘူး၊ အဲဒီေမတၱာခံပုဂၢိဳလ္အေပၚမွာသာ စိတ္က စုၿပံဳစူးစိုက္ နစ္ေနတယ္၊ အဲဒီအခ်ိန္မွာ လိုခ်င္တပ္မက္တဲ့စိတ္၊ စိတ္ပ်က္စိတ္ဆိုး စိတ္အလိုမက်တဲ့စိတ္၊ အိပ္ခ်င္ငိုက္ျမည္း ပ်င္းရိတဲ့စိတ္၊ စိတ္ပူပန္ပ်ံ႕လြင့္တဲ့စိတ္၊ ေၾကာင့္ၾကတဲ့စိတ္ႏွင့္ ရတနာသံုးပါးအေပၚ သို႔ေလာသို႔ေလာ မျပတ္သားတဲ့စိတ္ဆိုတဲ့ တားဆီးပိတ္ပင္တတ္တဲ့ နိ၀ရဏတရားငါးပါး ကင္းကြားေနတတ္တယ္။ ေမတၱာအင္အား ေကာင္းသထက္ေကာင္းေအာင္ ေလ့က်င့္လာရင္ ေမတၱာခံပုဂၢိဳလ္နဲ႔ မိမိဟာ ၿပံဳးရႊင္ၾကည္လင္တဲ့သြင္ျပင္နဲ႔ မ်က္ႏွာခ်င္းဆိုင္ ထုိင္ေနသလိုပဲ စကၠန္႔ပိုင္း မိနစ္ပိုင္းၾကာတဲ့ထိ အသိစိတ္ထဲ စြဲၿမဲသက္၀င္ တည္ေနႏိုင္ပါလိမ့္မယ္။

တျခား ဘာအာ႐ုံခံမွ မရွိဘဲ ေမတၱာခံယူမည့္ပုဂၢိဳလ္ကို ပကတိ က်န္းမာေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ခ်မ္းသာ ျပည့္စံုေစလိုတဲ့စိတ္ေတြ အလိုလိုျဖစ္ေနတာဟာ တမင္တကာစိတ္ကူးႀကံဆၿပီး ျဖစ္ေနတဲ့ စိတ္အဆင့္မ်ဳိး မဟုတ္ေတာ့ဘူး။

၀ီရိယသန္သန္ တိုး၍ ႀကိဳးစားေလ့က်င့္ပြားမ်ားတဲ့ ေယာဂီမ်ားဟာ မိနစ္ပိုင္းမွ နာရီပိုင္းထိ ၾကည္လင္ခ်မ္းေျမ့တဲ့ ေမတၱာစိတ္နဲ႔ ေနႏိုင္လာပါတယ္။ အိပ္ငိုက္တာမဟုတ္ဘူး၊ စိတ္က ၾကည္လင္သန္႔စင္ေနတယ္။

မိမိရည္မွန္းထားတဲ့ အခ်ိန္နာရီးကာလတေလွ်ာက္လံုး ဘာစိတ္မွမရွိဘူး၊ ေမတၱာစိတ္မွ်ပဲ ရွိေတာ့တယ္။

ေမတၱာစိတ္မွ်ပဲ ရွိေနတာ အခ်ိန္ၾကာလာရင္ေတာ့ တခါတရံ ငါ့မွာ ဘာစိတ္ေတြ ျဖစ္ေနပါလိမ့္မလဲလို႔လည္း တစ္ခ်က္တစ္ခ်က္ စစ္ေဆးမိရက္သားျဖစ္ေနတယ္။ ဒီလို (၀ိတက္)၀င္လာခိုက္ေတာ့ ေမတၱာစိတ္အစဥ္ ခဏပ်က္တယ္၊ ဒါေပမယ့္ ျပန္ၿပီး ထူေထာင္ရတာ ဘာမွ မပင္ပန္းဘူး၊ ေၾကာင့္ၾကစိုက္ရတယ္လို႔ေတာင္ ေျပာလို႔မရဘူး။

အဲဒီလို အခ်ိန္ေတြ ေတာ္ေတာ္ၾကာသြားၿပီး ေမတၱာစိတ္မွအပ က်န္တဲ့စိတ္ေတြ မျဖစ္ေတာကို သိရလို႔လည္း ေယာဂီသေဘာက်မိတတ္တယ္။ အဲဒီအခါမွာေတာ့ မိမိစိတ္ကိုမိမိ လႈိက္လိႈက္လွဲလွဲ ၾကည္ညိဳတယ္ဆိုတဲ့သေဘာကို ေယာဂီကိုယ္တိုင္ သေဘာက်ႏိုင္ပါၿပီ။

လူပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ားကို ေက်ပြန္ေအာင္ ေမတၱာပြားၿပီးၿပီဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ဦးစြာ

မိမိထုိင္ေနတဲ့ အခန္းရဲ႕ မ်က္ႏွာအားလံုးကို ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

- မိမိထိုင္ရာမွ အေရွ႕ကေနၿပီး ေမတၱာ စ,ပြားတာ လြယ္ကူပါတယ္။ ဒါကို အထပ္ထပ္ပြားလို႔ ေက်ပြန္ရင္

- အိမ္၀န္းရဲ႕အရပ္မ်က္နွာအားလံုးကို ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

- ၿပီးရင္ ရပ္ကြက္ေက်းရြာနယ္နိမိတ္ထိ ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

- အဲဒီေနာက္ ၿမိဳ႕နယ္၊ ခ႐ုိင္၊ တိုင္းနယ္၊ ျပည္နယ္၊ ႏိုင္ငံနယ္နိမိတ္အထိ အရပ္မ်က္ႏွာအားလံုးကို ေမတၱာပြားရပါမယ္။

- ဆက္ၿပီးေတာ့ ကမၻာကေန အနႏၲစၾက၀ဠာထိေအာင္ စိတ္ကို ျမွင့္ျမွင့္ၿပီးေတာ့ ခ်ဲ႕ခ်ဲ႕ၿပီးေတာ့ အရပ္မ်က္ႏွာအားလံုးကို ေမတၱာပြားရမယ္။

- အေလ႔အက်င့္ရလာတဲ့အခါမွာေတာ့ အရပ္မ်က္ႏွာေဘာင္ေတြ မရွိေတာ့ဘဲ စက္၀န္းႀကီးအတိုင္း ေမတၱာလႈိင္းမ်ား ခ်ဲ႕ခ်ဲ႕ၿပီး သြားေနတယ္လို႔ ခံစားရတတ္ပါတယ္။

- အဲဒီအ၀န္းက ရံခါ လင္းေနတယ္၊ ရံခါ ေဖြးေနတယ္လို႔လည္း ထင္ရတတ္ပါတယ္။ မိမိကိုယ္ကေန ေမတၱာလိႈင္းမ်ား ပို႔တဲ့ဆီကို အမွန္တကယ္ ေရာက္ေနၿပီလို႔လည္း ခံစားရတတ္ပါတယ္။

- အထူူးသတိျပဳဖို႔လိုတာကေတာ့ မိမိရဲ႕ေမတၱာေၾကာင့္ ရန္သူငုပ္လွ်ဳိးၿပိဳလဲေစရမယ္၊ ရန္သူ ဒုကၡေရာက္ရမယ္၊ ငါ့ေမတၱာစူးရင္ သင္႐ူးၿပီလို႔ မေတြးမႀကံရဘူး၊ မရည္ရြယ္ရဘူး၊ ဒီလိုစိတ္သေဘာထားႏွင့္ ေမတၱာပို႔ရင္ေတာ့ ေမတၱာမျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေတာ့ပါဘူး၊ ဆန္႔က်င္ဘက္ ေဒါသအာဃာတ ရန္ၿငိဳးေတြသာ ျဖစ္ဖြယ္ရွိတယ္။ ပို႔တဲ့သူဆီကို ေမတၱာေရာက္မွာ မဟုတ္ေတာ့တဲ့ျပင္ မိမိမွာပဲ ပူေလာင္ပင္ပန္းေစတဲ့ အကုသိုလ္ ကိေလသာစိတ္ေတြျဖစ္ၿပီး ပင္ပန္းဖြယ္ပဲရွိပါတယ္။ ေမတၱာရဲ႕ၿငိမ္းေအးခ်မ္းသာမႈနဲ႔ေတာ့ ဆန္႔က်င္ဘက္ပါပဲ။


ေန႔စဥ္ဘ၀ထဲ၌ လုပ္ရင္းကိုင္ရင္း ပြားမ်ားျခင္း


ေမတၱာဘာ၀နာပြားတာ ဦးစြာ မေနာ(စိတ္)ကေန ပြားေနျခင္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အေလ့အက်င့္ရလာတဲ့အခါက်ေတာ့ ေန႔စဥ္ဘ၀ထဲကို ေမတၱာေရာက္ရွိေနပါၿပီ။ ဒီလိုေရာက္လာဖို႔ အေထာက္အကူျဖစ္ႏိုင္ဖို႔နည္းလမ္းကေတာ့ လူတစ္ေယာက္ကို ေတြ႔ရင္ မိမိက ဦးစြာ ေမတၱာပို႔ပါ။ တစ္ေနရာရာသြားရင္ ေမတၱာပို႔ၿပီးမွ သြားတဲ့ အေလ့အက်င့္လုပ္ပါ။ အိပ္ရာ၀င္ရင္လည္း အိပ္မေပ်ာ္မခ်င္း ေမတၱာပို႔ေနပါ။ ေမတၱာပို႔ရင္းပဲ အိပ္ေပ်ာ္ပါေစ၊ ႏိုးလာရင္းလည္း ေမတၱာစိတ္ႏွင့္ပဲ ႏိုးႏိုင္ဖို႔ ေလ့က်င့္ေပးပါ။ စားေသာက္တဲ့အခါလည္း ခ်က္ျပဳတ္ျပင္ဆင္သူမ်ားကို ေမတၱာပြားၿပီးမွစားပါ၊ တစ္ေယာက္ေယာက္ကို သတိရရင္လည္း ေမတၱာအရင္ပြားပါအံုး။

ဒီလိုနဲ႔ အေလ့အက်င့္ အားေကာင္းလာတဲ့အခါမွာေတာ့ မိမိတမင္တကာ ေမတၱာစိတ္ျဖစ္ေအာင္ လုပ္စရာမလိုဘဲ အလိုလိုပဲ ေမတၱာစိတ္ျဖစ္ေနတာ သတိထားမိပါလိမ့္မယ္။ စိတ္ထဲ သူ႔အလုိလိုပဲ ေက်းဇူးတင္စိတ္ေတြ ျဖစ္လာတတ္တယ္။ ဆင္းရဲဒုကၡေရာက္သူကို ေတြ႔ရင္လည္း လိႈက္လိႈက္လွဲလွဲ သနားက႐ုဏာစိတ္ေတြ ရင္ထဲ အလိုလိုပဲ ျဖစ္လာတတ္တယ္။

ေမတၱာရဲ႕ ေက်းဇူးႏွင့္ သာဓကကို ေဖာ္ျပရင္ေတာ့ အမ်ားႀကီးပါပဲ..။

ျမတ္စြာဘုရားရွင္က လက္တစ္ဖ်စ္တီးကာလမွ် ေမတၱာစိတ္ကို ပြားမ်ားျဖန္႔ျဖဴးပို႔သ မွီ၀ဲေနတဲ့ ရဟန္းကို စ်ာန္မွ မဆိတ္သုဥ္းေသာရဟန္း၊ ျပည္သူ႔ဆြမ္းကို အက်ဳိးရွိေအာင္ ဘုဥ္းေပးသံုးေဆာင္ေသာရဟန္းဆိုၿပီး အထူးခ်ီးမြမ္းေတာ္မူပါတယ္။

ထင္ရွားတဲ့သာဓကအေနႏွင့္ေတာ့ ဓမၼစႀကၤာေဒသနာဦးကို မေဟာၾကားခင္ ပဥၥ၀ဂၢီငါးပါးႏွင့္ ဘုရားရွင္ရဲ႕ေမတၱာေတာ္ဟာ အံ့ဖြယ္မွတ္သားစရာပါပဲ။

“ျမတ္စြာဘုရားရွင္သည္ ထိုပဥၥ၀ဂၢီငါးဦးတို႔၏ စိတ္ထားကို သိျမင္ေတာ္မူေလလွ်င္ အလံုးစံုေသာ သတၱ၀ါတို႔အေပၚ၌ မည္သည့္သတၱ၀ါအတြက္ဟု ရည္မွတ္ပိုင္းျခားမႈ မထားေသာအားျဖင့္ သိမ္းက်ဳံးျဖန္႔လႊမ္းထားႏိုင္ေသာ ေမတၱာစိတ္ဓာတ္ေတာ္ကို အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳံး ႐ုံးစု၍ သီးသန္႔ပိုင္းျခား သတ္မွတ္ေသာအားျဖင့္ ပဥၥ၀ဂၢီငါးဦးတို႔အေပၚ၌သာလွ်င္ ေမတၱာျဖန္႔ပို႔ေတာ္မူ၏။ ဘုရားရွင္ေမတၱာဓာတ္ ထိခုိက္ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ထိုပဥၥ၀ဂၢီတို႔သည္ ဘုရားရွင္ႂကြလာေတာ္မူလွ်င္ (သိဒၶတၳလာလွ်င္ ခရီးဦးအႀကိဳမျပဳေတာ့ဘူးဟူေသာ)မိမိတို႔ မူလကတိအတိုင္း မရပ္တည္ႏိုင္ၾကေတာ့ဘဲ ရွိခုိးျခင္း၊ ခရီးဦးႀကိဳဆိုျခင္းစေသာ အမႈကိစၥအားလံုးကို ျပဳမိၾကေလၿပီ” ဒါက ေမတၱာရဲ႕သာဓကပါပဲ။

ေနာက္သာဓကတစ္ခုကလည္း ျမတ္စြာဘုရားဟာ စႀကၤာ၀ဠာအနႏၲတို႔အေပၚ၌ ျဖန္႔လႊမ္းပို႔ႏုိင္တဲ့ ေမတၱာစိတ္ဓာတ္ကို နာဠာဂီရိဆင္တစ္ေကာင္တည္းအေပၚမွာသာ စုၿပံဳျဖန္႔လႊမ္းေတာ္မူပါတယ္။ နာဠာဂီရိဆင္ဟာ ဘုရားရွင္၏ေမတၱာစိတ္ကို ထိခုိက္ေနၿပီျဖစ္လုိ႔ ေဘးရန္ကင္းစြာ ဘုရားရွင္ရဲ႕ေျခေတာ္အစံုမွာ ခိုလႈံတုပ္၀ပ္ပါေတာ့တယ္။

ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းအားထုတ္မည့္သူ သတိထားရမည့္ အေရးအႀကီးဆံုးအခ်က္ကေတာ့.. ေမတၱာစြမ္းအားဟာ ေရွးအခါကသာ စြမ္းတယ္၊ ယခု မစြမ္းေတာ့ဘူးလို႔ မမွတ္ယူရဘူး၊ တရားတို႔မည္သည္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္သတၱ၀ါ၊ အခ်ိန္ကာလ၊ ေနရပ္ေဒသဟူ၍ မရွိေကာင္းပါဘူး။ အရင္လည္း စြမ္းတယ္၊ ခုလည္း စြမ္းတယ္၊ ေနာင္လည္း စြမ္းပါတယ္။ ဘုရားရွင္ေဟာေတာ္မူတဲ့ တရားေတာ္မွန္သမွ်ဟာ.. တကယ္က်င့္ႀကံရင္ တကယ့္ကိုပဲ အစြမ္းထက္လွပါတယ္။ က်င့္ႀကံအားထုတ္ေနသူေတြ ရွိသေရြ႕လည္း သာသနာဟာ မကြယ္ေပ်ာက္ပါဘူး။ ဒါကို ေသေသခ်ာခ်ာသိၿပီး ေလးေလးနက္နက္ ယံုၾကည္ထားမွ ထိထိေရာက္ေရာက္လုပ္ျဖစ္မွာပါ။ ေနာက္ၿပီး ေမတၱာပြားမ်ားတဲ့ကံဟာလည္း ဘ၀သံသရာမွာ အလြန္ႀကီးကိုပဲ အက်ဳိးေပးသန္လွပါတယ္ဆိုတာကို အထက္မွာ ရွင္းျပခဲ့ၿပီးပါၿပီေနာ္..။


အရွင္ေခမာနႏၵ(မဟာၿမိဳင္ေတာရ) ေမတၱာကမၼ႒ာန္းလက္ေတြ႔႐ႈပြားနည္းစာအုပ္မွ ကူးယူေဖာ္ျပပါသည္။

ဤစာကို ဖတ္႐ႈရေသာသူအေပါင္း ေမတၱာ၏ေအးခ်မ္းမႈမ်ားျဖင့္ ျပည့္စံုၾကပါေစ…

ဤေကာင္းမႈကုသုိလ္ေၾကာင့္ နိမ့္ေသာကံျမင့္၊ ပိတ္ေသာဉာဏ္ပြင့္၍ မဂ္ဖိုလ္နိဗၺာန္ကိုမ်က္ေမွာက္ျပဳသည့္တိုင္္ေအာင္ အေၾကာင္းအေထာက္ပံ့ေကာင္းျဖစ္ရပါေစ။


သူေတာ္မြန္

Thursday, August 13, 2009

စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ သွ်မ္း႐ြာသံုး႐ြာ အိမ္ေျခ ၁၀၀ ေက်ာ္ မီး႐ႈိ႕/ဖမ္းဆီးႏွိပ္စက္



စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ သွ်မ္း႐ြာသံုး႐ြာ အိမ္ေျခ ၁၀၀ ေက်ာ္ မီး႐ႈိ႕/ဖမ္းဆီးႏွိပ္စက္
ၾကာသပေတးေန႕၊ 30 ဇူလိုင္လ 2009 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
E-mail Print
သွ်မ္းသူပုန္မ်ားအား သတင္းေပးကူညီသည္ဟု စစ္အစိုးရတပ္စြပ္စြဲသည့္ သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္းမွ သွ်မ္း႐ြာသံုး႐ြာ အိမ္ေျခ ၁၀၀ ေက်ာ္ ကုိ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးလိုက္သျဖင့္ ေက်းလက္လူထု ငိုယိုပူေဆြးၾကရေၾကာင္း သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္း သတင္း ရပ္ကြက္ က ဆိုသည္။


ဂ်ဴလိုင္ ၂၉ ရက္ မနက္ ၀၄း၀၀ နာရီက လဲခ်ားအေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၆၄ မွ စစ္ေၾကာင္းတေၾကာင္းသည္လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕အေ႐ွ႕ ေျမာက္ဘက္ တတ္ေမာက္ေက်း႐ြာအုပ္စု၀င္ တတ္ေမာက္၊ ကြန္ဟုန္း၊ ႏွင့္ ဟိုလုံး(မ္း)႐ြာအတြင္းေသနတ္ပစ္ေဖါက္၀င္ ေရာက္ၿပီး အိမ္ေျခမ်ား စပါးက်ီမ်ားအားလံုး မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးကာ ေဒသခံအမ်ဳိးသား ၄၀ - ၅၀ ဦးကုိလည္း ဖမ္းဆီး ႐ိုက္ႏွက္စစ္ေဆးေၾကာင္း ဆိုပါသည္။

“တတ္ေမာက္ေက်း႐ြာသူႀကီး စိုင္းတိ ၊ ႐ြာသား လံုးလိန္ နဲ႕ စိုင္းတာ့ကုိ ေမ့ေမ်ာတဲ့အထိ ဗမာတပ္က ႐ုိက္ႏွက္တယ္။ ေထာ္ လာဂ်ီႏွစ္စီးနဲ႕ လူအေယာက္ ၅၀ ေလာက္ကိုဖမ္းသြားတယ္။ ခလရ ၆၄ တပ္ထဲေခၚသြားၿပီး ႐ုိက္ႏွက္စစ္ေဆးတယ္။ SSA ခဲြထြက္ ဗိုလ္မိုင္းဇင့္ လူေတြပါသြားတယ္လို႕ ဒီေန႕မနက္ တခ်ဳိ႕ျပန္လြတ္လာတယ္ေျပာတာဘဲ” - ဟု လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕သုိ႕ ထြက္ေျပးရသည့္ ႐ြာသားတဦးက ေျပာပါသည္။

အဆိုပါအေၾကာင္းကိစၥႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ေျပာခြင့္ရ စိုင္းဆိုင္မိဏ္းႏွင့္ ဆက္သြယ္ေမးျမန္းခဲ့ရာ ဟုတ္မွန္ ေၾကာင္း အတည္ျဳပေျပာဆိုသည့္အျပင္ - “စစ္အစိုးရက လူထုကို ႏွိပ္စက္ခ်င္တုိင္း၊ ေက်း႐ြာေ႐ႊ႕ေျပာင္းေစခ်င္ တုိင္း သွ်မ္းသူ ပုန္ေတြနဲ႕ ဆက္သြယ္သတင္းေပး ကူညီေထာက္ပံ့တယ္လို႕ အၿမဲစြပ္စြဲတာဘဲ” - ဟုဆို၏။

အမည္မေဖၚလိုသည့္ေဒသခံတဦးကလည္း -“အိမ္အသစ္ေဆာက္ဖို႕ သစ္ေတြစုထားတာလဲ ဗမာတပ္မီး႐ႈိ႕တဲ့အထဲပါသြား ၿပီ၊ ၀ယ္ထားတဲ့ကုန္ေတြလဲဘာမွမက်န္ေတာ့ဘူး၊ ေထာ္လာဂ်ီနဲ႕ ၿမိဳ႕ထဲကေနက်န္တဲ့ပစၥည္းေလးေတြသြားသယ္ယူဖို႕ကလဲ ဗမာတပ္ေတြက အရမ္းစစ္ေဆးေနတယ္၊ ဒီေန႕(၃၀၊၀၇၊၀၉) လဲ တျခား႐ြာေတြဆက္႐ႈိ႕တုန္းဘဲ” - ဟု ေျပာ၏။

“ေဒသခံလူထုေတြကို ႏွိပ္စက္တဲ့ စစ္အစိုးရရဲ႕ ဘယ္စစ္ေၾကာင္းမဆိုက်ေနာ္တို႕ သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္က ျပန္လည္ ေခ်ပမွာ ဘဲ၊ လက္နက္ကိုင္ၿပီး ျပည္သူပိုင္ ဥစၥာပစၥည္းေတြကုိ အႏုိင္က်င့္ ဖ်က္ဆီးရင္ က်ေနာ္တို႕လဲလက္နက္နဲ႕ ျပန္ၿပီးတုန္႕ျပန္ရ လိမ့္မယ္” - ဟု စိုင္းဆိုင္မိဏ္းက ေျပာပါသည္။

စစ္အစိုးရတပ္မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးသည့္ တတ္ေမာက္႐ြာတြင္ အိမ္ေျခ ၆၀ ခန္႕၊ ဟိုလုံး(မ္း)႐ြာတြင္အိမ္ေျခ ၃၀ ေက်ာ္၊ ကြန္ဟုန္း႐ြာ ၌ အိမ္ေျခ ၄၀ ၀န္းက်င္ခန္႕ မီးထဲအားလံုး ပါသြားၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေဒသခံမ်ားေျပာၾကားခ်က္အရ သိရပါသည္။ ၎ ႐ြာမ်ား အား လိုက္လံမီး႐ႈိ႕ေနသည့္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္သည္ အမ်ားအားျဖင့္ လဲခ်ားအေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၆၄ ျဖစ္သည္ဟုေျပာေသာ္လည္း အခ်ဳိ႕က လင္းေခး အေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၉၉ ျဖစ္သည္ဟုလည္း ဆိုၾကပါသည္။

၂၀၀၉ ဂ်ဴလိုင္ ၁၅ ရက္က သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ နအဖ စစ္ေၾကာင္းအား ျဳခံခိုတိုက္ခိုက္ရာမွာ စစ္အစိုးရဘက္ ၁၁ ေယာက္ ေသဆံုးၿပီး ၁၄ ေယာက္ဒဏ္ရာရရာမွ တန္ျပန္ထိုးစစ္ဆင္တိုက္ခိုက္ရန္ မိုင္းေနာင္အေျခစိုက္ ဒကစမႉးဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေက်ာ္ဇံျမင့္ က ၎ လက္ေအာက္ခံ ခမရ၊ ခလရ တပ္မႉးမ်ားအားလံုးေခၚယူၿပီး ဂ်ဴလိုင္ ၂၀ ရက္ေန႕က အေရးေပၚအစည္း အေ၀းေခၚယူ က်င္းခဲ့ပါသည္။ ထိုအစည္းအေ၀းမွာ ေတာင္ပိုင္း SSA တပ္ဖြဲ႕အား အျပင္းအထန္ထိုးစစ္ဆင္ တိုက္ခိုက္ရန္ စစ္ဗ်ဴဟာႏွစ္ခု ျပင္ဆင္ဖုိ႕ အမိန္႕ေပးခဲ့သည့္ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေက်း႐ြာမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးမႈ ပထမဆံုး စတင္ခဲ့တာျဖစ္ပါသည္။

ေက်းလက္သွ်မ္း႐ြာ ၁၀ ႐ြာေက်ာ္အား စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီး အဓမၼေမာင္းထုတ္



ေက်းလက္သွ်မ္း႐ြာ ၁၀ ႐ြာေက်ာ္အား စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီး အဓမၼေမာင္းထုတ္
စေနေန႕၊ 01 ၾသဂုတ္လ 2009 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
E-mail Print

သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္း၌ လႈပ္႐ွားေသာ စစ္အစုိးရတပ္မ်ား ေက်းလက္လူထု၏ရပ္႐ြာ၊ ေနအိမ္၊ စပါးက်ီမ်ား ဆက္တိုက္ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးကာ ေဒသခံသွ်မ္းလူထုအား ရပ္႐ြာမွေမာင္းထုတ္၊ ဖမ္းဆီး႐ုိက္နက္ေၾကာင္း သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္း သတင္းရပ္ ကြက္ကဆိုပါသည္။

“နမ့္ဇန္၊ လြယ္လင္၊ ပင္လုံ၊ လဲခ်ား မိုင္းကိုင္၊ ေက်းသီး၊ မိုင္းေနာင္အၾကား ေတာ႐ြာေတြဘက္မွာလႈပ္႐ွားေနတဲ့ လြယ္လင္ အေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၉ ၊ ခလရ ၁၂ ၊ လဲခ်ားအေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၆၄၊ ခမရ ၅၁၅ ၊ မိုးနဲအေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၂၄၈ ေတြေပါ့။ အဲဒီတပ္ ေတြဘဲ ၂၇/၀၇/၀၉ စၿပီး ႐ြာေတြကိုလိုက္ၿပီးမီး႐ႈိ႕ေနတာ” - ဟု အမည္မေဖၚလိုသည့္ ပင္လံုၿမိဳ႕သားတဦးက ဆိုသည္။

ခမရ ၅၁၅ က မိုင္းယိုင္းေက်း႐ြာအုပ္စု႐ွိ ေက်း႐ြာသံုး႐ြာအား အဓမၼေမာင္းထုတ္မႈေၾကာင့္ လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ပန္ဖုန္းေက်း႐ြာ ဘက္သို႕ အိမ္ေျခ ၂၀ ေက်ာ္ထြက္ေျပးၾကေၾကာင္း၊ ခလရ ၆၄ က အသက္ ၁၅ ႏွစ္ေအာက္ ေယာက္်ားေလး အပါအ၀င္ ဇီးေဇါ့႐ြာသား ၁၄-၁၅ ေယာက္ကို ေမ့ေမ်ာသည္အထိ ဖမ္းဆီး႐ုိက္ႏွက္ၿပီး အဓမၼရပ္႐ြာေျပာင္းခိုင္းေၾကာင္း၊ ခလရ ၂၄၈ က ကြန္ဟိန္းၿမိဳ႕နယ္ ေနာင္ေတာ၀္းမိုင္းလုံး လားဟူ႐ြာသား ၃၀ ေက်ာ္ကုိ ဖမ္းဆီးေခၚေဆာင္သြားၿပီး ယခုတိုင္ ျပန္လြတ္ေပး ျခင္းမ႐ွိေသးေၾကာင္း၊ ထို႕အတူ ခလရ ၉ လြယ္လင္ ကလည္း ဟိုခိုင္း႐ြာသူ/သားမ်ားအား အဓမၼေျပာင္းေ႐ြ႕ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း စစ္အစိုးရလႈပ္႐ွားမႈ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေလ့လာသည့္အသိုင္းအ၀ိုင္းက ဆိုသည္။

အမည္မေဖၚလိုသည့္ အသက္ ၃၀ ေက်ာ္ လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕သူတဦးက -“၂၉ ရက္ေန႕မနက္ လဲခ်ားအေ႐ွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ ၀မ့္တတ္ ေမာက္၊ ကြန္ဟုန္း၊ ဟိုလုံး(မ္း) ႐ြာေတြကို မီး႐ႈိ႕တာက ခလရ ၉၉ မဟုတ္ဘူး လြယ္လင္အေျခစိုက္ ခလရ ၁၂ ျဖစ္တယ္။ ႐ြာသံုး႐ြာ အိမ္ေျခစုစုေပါင္း ၂၀၀ ေက်ာ္ မီးထဲအားလံုးပါသြားတယ္။ ဘာမွမက်န္ေအာင္႐ႈိ႕တယ္ဆိုေတာ့ စပါးက်ီ အိမ္ေမြး ၾကက္ျခံ/၀က္ျခံလဲအလြတ္မထားဘူး၊ ကြၽဲ ႏြား ေတြလဲ သတ္စားတဲ့အျပင္ ေတြ႕သမွ်ပစၥည္းေတြ လဲယူေသးတယ္” - ဟုဆို၏။

သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ တပ္မႉးတဦးက စစ္အစိုးရတပ္လုပ္ရပ္သည္ ကုလားမႏိုင္ရခိုင္မဲ ဆိုသည့္စကားအတိုင္း သွ်မ္းျပည္ တပ္မေတာ္ကုိ မတိုက္၀ံ့ဘဲ ေက်းလက္လူထုကိုပစ္မွတ္ထား အႏိုင္က်င့္ႏွိပ္စက္ျခင္းသည္ ယုတ္ညံ့သည့္လုပ္ရပ္ျဖစ္ ေၾကာင္း၊ အမွတ္ ၂ စကခ မႉး ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီးေက်ာ္ဇံျမင့္ ေျပာသည့္ “စစ္ဗ်ဴဟာ ၂ ခု အသံုးျပဳၿပီး သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ကို အျပင္းအထန္ တိုက္ခိုက္ေခ်မႈန္းမယ္” ဆိုသည့္ႂကြားလံုးသည္ ေက်းလက္လူထု၏ဥစၥာပစၥည္းကိုမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးျခင္းသာျဖစ္ ေၾကာင္း၊ သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ကလည္း ျပည္သူ႕ကိုယ္စား ဆက္လက္လက္စားေခ် တန္ျပန္တိုက္ခိုက္သြားမည္ျဖစ္ ေၾကာင္း ထပ္ ေျပာ၏။

သွ်မ္းျပည္မ်ဳိးခ်စ္ပုဂၢိဳလ္တဦးက - ယခုအခ်ိန္သည္ သွ်မ္းျပည္တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္တပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ား စုစည္း၍ နယ္ခ်ဲ႕ စစ္အစိုးရ/စစ္အာဏာ႐ွင္အား တြန္းလွန္တိုက္ခိုက္ရန္ အခ်ိန္ေရာက္ၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း၊ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးတပ္မ်ားအေနျဖင့္ ထိေရာက္သည့္ေအာင္ပြဲခံ တိုက္ပြဲမ်ဳိးမဆင္ႏႊဲႏိုင္သေ႐ႊ႕ စစ္အစုိးရကလူထုအေပၚ လူ႕အခြင့္အေရးဆက္လက္ ခ်ဳိးေဖါက္ေန မည္ မလြဲေၾကာင္း - ေျပာဆိုသံုးသပ္ပါသည္။

စစ္အစိုးရႏွိပ္စက္ညႇင္းပမ္းမႈဒဏ္မွထြက္ေျပးေနသည့္ သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္းဒုကၡသည္အမ်ားအျပားသည္ မည္သူ႕ထံမွ ကူညီေစာင့္ေ႐ွာက္ ေထာက့္ပံ့မမႈမရ။ ေဆြမ်ဳိးမဲ့သူမ်ား ေတာေတာင္ထဲ ပုန္းခုိေနထိုင္ရျခင္း၊ အခ်ဳိ႕လည္း ၿမိဳ႕တြင္း႐ွိ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႀကီးေက်ာင္းမ်ား၌ခုိကုိးေနထိုင္ရျခင္း၊ ေက်း႐ြာမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးအဓမၼေျပာင္းေ႐ြ႕သည့္ စစ္အစိုးရဘက္မွ တစံုတရာ ကူညီေဆာင္႐ြက္ေပးမႈ မ႐ွိျခင္းတို႕သည္သာမက ဒုကၡသည္႐ြာသားမ်ား၏ ပစၥည္းမ်ားလည္း အဓမၼလုယူေနေသး ေၾကာင္း ဆိုသည္။

၂၀၀၉ ေမ ၂၁ မွ စ၍ ွွဗ ေတာင္ပိုင္းတပ္ဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္ နအဖ စစ္တပ္အၾကား တိုက္ပြဲႀကီးငယ္ အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ရာ စစ္အစိုး ရတပ္ဘက္က (ဗိုလ္ႀကီး၊ ဗိုလ္မႉးအဆင့္အထိပါ၀င္)၂၀ ေက်ာ္ေသဆုံးကာ၊ SSA က လက္နက္ႀကီးငယ္ ၃၀ ေက်ာ္ သိမ္းဆည္းရမိေၾကာင္း၊ SSA ဘက္မွ ( ၂၀၀၈ ႏို၀င္ဘာ မွ ၂၀၀၉ ဂြၽန္ အထိ SSA ၏ ေျခာက္လပတ္အစည္းအေ၀း မွတ္တမ္း အရ) တပ္မေတာ္သား ၂ ေယာက္က်ဆုံးၿပီး လက္နက္ ၁ လက္ ဆံုး႐ႈံးေၾကာင္း ဆုိပါသည္။

အဆိုပါ တိုက္ပြဲမ်ားမွ စစ္အစိုးရဆံုး႐ႈံးမႈမ်ားေသာေၾကာင့္ မိုင္းေနာင္အေျခစိုက္ ဒကစမႉးဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေက်ာ္ဇံျမင့္ က ၎ လက္ေအာက္ခံ ခမရ၊ ခလရ တပ္မႉးမ်ားအားလံုး ေခၚယူၿပီး ဂ်ဴလိုင္ ၂၀ ရက္ေန႕က အေရးေပၚအစည္း အေ၀းေခၚယူ က်င္းခဲ့ပါသည္။ ထိုအစည္းအေ၀းမွာ ေတာင္ပိုင္း ွွဗ တပ္ဖြဲ႕အား အျပင္းအထန္ထိုးစစ္ဆင္တိုက္ခိုက္ရန္ စစ္ဗ်ဴဟာႏွစ္ခု ျပင္ဆင္ဖုိ႕ အမိန္႕ေပးခဲ့သည့္ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေက်း႐ြာမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးမႈ ပထမဆံုး စတင္လာခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။

ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသယ္မည့္ ျဖတ္လမ္းကိစၥ SSA အခြင့္ရယူရန္လို

Type your summary here.


ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသယ္မည့္ ျဖတ္လမ္းကိစၥ SSA အခြင့္ရယူရန္လို
တနလၤာေန႕၊ 03 ၾသဂုတ္လ 2009 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
E-mail Print
သွ်မ္းျပည္အေ႐ွ႕ပိုင္း မံုးကုတ္ေဒသထြက္ ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးတူးရန္ ႏွစ္ ၄၀ ကန္ထ႐ုိက္ရထားသည့္ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ဆရပူရီ ကုမၸဏီ အား ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံသို႕ ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသယ္မည့္ျဖတ္လမ္းအသစ္ေဖါက္လုပ္လွ်င္ သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ထံ ခြင့္ရယူ ရမည္ဟု SSA ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီးယြက္စစ္ေျပာက ေျပာသည္။

“ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသယ္ယူဖို႕ ထိုင္းႏုိင္ငံအတြင္းမွာ ေဖါက္လုပ္မယ့္လမ္းပိုင္းက က်ေနာ္ဘာမွ မေျပာလိုဘူး။ သွ်မ္းျပည္ အတြင္းပိုင္းမွာ ေဖါက္လုပ္မယ့္ကိစၥကေတာ့ က်ေနာ္တို႕ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္နယ္ေျမကို ျဖတ္ေက်ာ္ေဖါက္လုပ္မယ္ဆိုေတာ့ က်ေနာ္ တို႕ နဲ႕တိုင္ပင္ေဆြးေႏြးမႈ၊ သေဘာတူညီမႈမ႐ွိဘဲနဲ႕ ေဖါက္လုပ္သြားခြင့္မ႐ွိဘူး”- ဟု ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီးယြက္စစ္က သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္ သို႕ ယခုလ ၁ ရက္ေန႕က ေျပာျပ၏။

သံလြင္အေ႐ွ႕ျခမ္း မိုင္းဆတ္ၿမိဳ႕ အေ႐ွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ မိုင္ ၃၀ ေက်ာ္အကြာ မံုးကုတ္ (ေခၚ) မိုင္းခုတ္ထြက္ ေက်ာက္မီး ေသြးမ်ား တူးယူ ခြင့္တင္ဒါကို စစ္အစိုးရက ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ဆရဘူရီ ေက်ာက္မီးေသြး ကုမၸဏီ (Saraburi Coal Mining) အား ႏွစ္ ၄၀ စာခ်ဳပ္ျဖင့္ ၂၀၀၈ ေႏွာင္းပိုင္းက ေပးၿပီးေနာက္ ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးမ်ားအား ထိုင္းသို႕ သယ္ေဆာင္ရာတြင္ မိုင္းဆတ္၊ မံုးကုတ္၊ မိုင္းလုံ၊ တာခ်ီလိတ္ - မယ္ဆိုင္ လမ္းကိုအသံုးမျဳပလိုဘဲျဖတ္လမ္းျဖင့္ ေတာင္ဘက္စူးစူး မံုးကုတ္ - မိုင္းတြမ္း - ေယာင္ခါ - မယ္က်ဳတ္ မွတဆင့္ ထိုင္းနယ္ စပ္ကိုျဖတ္၍ မံု႕ေကာ၀္လန္ - ဟင္တက္ မွ ခ်င္း႐ုိင္းသို႕ တိုက္႐ုိက္ သယ္ေဆာင္လိုသည္ဟု ဆို၏။

“ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးသယ္ဖို႕ကိစၥက က်ေနာ္အပါအ၀င္ အမ်ားျပည္သူက သေဘာမတူဘူး၊ ဒါေပမယ့္ ဆရပူရီကုမၸဏီက လမ္းေဖါက္ေရးအတြက္ လူထုဆႏၵေကာက္ယူတဲ့စစ္တမ္းကို ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့လက ကြင္းဆင္း လုပ္ခဲ့တယ္။ စစ္တမ္းအရ ကန္႕ ကြက္ တဲ့သူမ်ားတယ္။ ဒါေတာင္သူတို႕ဆက္လက္ အေကာင္အထည္ ေဖၚမယ္ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ က်ေနာ္တို႕ဘက္ကစု႐ုံးဆႏၵ ျပဖို႕ဘဲ ႐ွိေတာ့တယ္” - ဟု အမည္မေဖၚလိုသည့္ ဟင္တက္မွ ေက်း႐ြာသူႀကီး တဦးကဆိုသည္။

ျဖတ္လမ္းမွတဆင့္သယ္ေဆာင္လွ်င္ (၁) သဘာ၀ သစ္ေတာျပဳန္းတီးမႈအႏၱရာယ္၊ (၂) လူကုန္ကူးမႈျပႆနာ၊ (၃) မူးယစ္ ေမွာင္ ခိုျပႆနာ၊ (၄) သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ေတာင္ပိုင္းလႈပ္႐ွားနယ္ျဖစ္ေသာေၾကာင့္ နယ္စပ္လံုျခဳံေရးဆိုင္ရာျပႆနာ မ်ားႀကံ ေတြ႕လာႏိုင္ဘြယ္ရွိေၾကာင္း - ၎င္းကေျပာျပသည္။

မံုးကုတ္ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးတြင္းမွတဆင့္ ေက်ာက္မီးေသြးဆိုင္ရာအသံုး၀င္သတၱဳမ်ားအားလံုး တရက္လွ်င္ အနည္းဆံုး တန္ခ်ိန္ ၅၀၀၀ထိုင္းသို႕တင္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္မည္ဟုအဆိုပါကုမၸဏီမွကြၽမ္းက်င္ပညာ႐ွင္မ်ားကခန္႕ မွန္းထားၾကသည္။ အလား တူပင္ သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္း ေက်းသီးၿမိဳ႕နယ္တြင္ လြန္ခဲ့သည့္ ၆ - ၇ ႏွစ္ကေက်ာက္မီးေသြးေတြ႕ရွိ ထား ေသာေၾကာင့္ တူးေဖၚရန္ နအဖ စစ္အစိုးက ေဒသခံမ်ား၏လယ္/ယာ/ျခံေျမအမ်ားအျပားသိမ္းယူထားေၾကာင္း သွ်မ္းျပည္ေတာင္ပိုင္း သတင္း ရပ္ကြက္ ကဆိုသည္။

သွ်မ္း - ကခ်င္နယ္စပ္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ အင္အားတိုးျမင့္ KIA ကုိတိုက္ဘြယ္႐ွိ

သွ်မ္း - ကခ်င္နယ္စပ္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ အင္အားတိုးျမင့္ KIA ကုိတိုက္ဘြယ္႐ွိ



ၾကာသပေတးေန႕၊ 06 ၾသဂုတ္လ 2009 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
E-mail Print
နအဖ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္မ်ားလႈပ္႐ွားသြားလာမႈ အေျခအေနကိုေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေလ့လာေနသည့္ ထိုင္းနယ္စပ္အေျခစိုက္ေတာ္လွန္ ေရးအဖြဲ႕အစည္းအခ်ဳိ႕က သွ်မ္း - ကခ်င္ နယ္စပ္တေလွ်ာက္ စစ္အစိုးရအင္အားတိုးျမႇင့္မႈသည္ KIA ကို ဦးစြာထိုးစစ္ဆင္ တိုက္ခိုက္ႏိုင္ဘြယ္႐ွိေၾကာင္း ယခုလဆန္းပိုင္း၌ သံုးသပ္ေျပာ ဆိုေနၾကသည္ဟုဆုိသည္။

“သွ်မ္းျပည္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းအေျခစုိက္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ေတြ မိုးမိတ္ဘက္ျဖတ္ၿပီး ကခ်င္နယ္ျခားဘက္ အင္အားေတြပို႕လႊတ္ ျဖည့္ တင္းေနတယ္၊ အခုလ (၂) ရက္ေန႕ လား႐ႈိးမွာ ရမခတိုင္းမႉး ေအာင္သန္းထြဋ္အစည္း အေ၀းေခၚတယ္၊ အဲဒီ ေနာက္ပိုင္း ၀ နဲ႕ အပစ္ရပ္ SSAေျမာက္ပိုင္းထိန္းခ်ဳပ္နယ္ ေျမအၾကား ကူးလူးဆက္ဆံမႈခက္ခဲေအာင္ ထိုးေဖါက္အင္အားျဖည့္ေနရာယူလာ သလို တပ္ေတြေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ေျမာက္ဘက္ကို တက္သြားၾကတယ္”- ဟု လား႐ႈိး ကုန္သည္တဦးက ဆိုသည္။

[ကခ်င္လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္မေတာ္ KIA (photo: flickr.com)]
ကခ်င္လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္မေတာ္ ဳ၍ဗ နယ္ျခားဘက္တြင္လည္း ႐ွိရင္းစြဲစစ္အစိုးရအေျခခ်တပ္မ်ားအျပင္ အျခားေဒသ မွ စစ္ကူအင္အားမ်ားလည္း မထင္မ႐ွား၀င္ေရာက္ျဖည့္တင္းေနေၾကာင္း၊ KIO/KIA ဌာနခ်ဳပ္ လိုင္ဇာ ႏွင့္ မလွမ္း မကမ္းတြင္ လက္နက္ႀကီး ၁၅၅ အမ္အမ္ ေဟာင္၀စ္ဇာ (Howitzer) ေတာင္ပစ္အေျမာက္အခ်ဳိ႕လည္းခ်ထားေၾကာင္း ေျပာဆိုေနၾကသည္။

“ကခ်င္လက္နက္ကိုင္ တပ္ဖဲြ႕ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ေဒသက ၀ ၊ ကိုးကန္႕၊ မိုင္းလား တို႕နဲ႕နယ္ေျမခ်င္းမထိစပ္ဘူး၊ သီးျခားျဖစ္ေန တဲ့အတြက္ စစ္အစိုးရက ၀ တပ္မေတာ္ UWSA မတိုက္ခင္ ကခ်င္ KIA အဖြဲ႕ကို ျဖတ္ေလးျဖတ္နဲ႕ အရင္႐ွင္းပစ္ဖို႕အလား အလာမ်ားတယ္။ ဘာလုိ႕လဲဆုိေတာ့ ၀ ၿပီးရင္ ကခ်င္တပ္ကအင္အားအေတာင့္ဆံုး”- ဟု အပစ္ရပ္အဖြဲ႕ မ်ားအားေစာင့္ၾကည့္ ေလ့လာသည့္ ျပည္တြင္း သွ်မ္းအသိုင္းအ၀ိုင္းက ဆိုသည္။

၀ ျပည္ေသြးစည္းေရးတပ္မေတာ္ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္နယ္ေျမ၏ ေျမာက္ဘက္တြင္ - ကိုးကန္႕၊ ေတာင္ဘက္တြင္ မိုင္းလား၊ အေ႐ွ႕ ဘက္တြင္တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ အေနာက္ဘက္တြင္ သံလြင္ျမစ္ႏွင့္ အပစ္ရပ္သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္မေတာ္ SSA ေျမာက္ပိုင္း တပ္ဖဲြ႕မ်ား၀န္းရံ အကာအကြယ္ျဳပေနသလိုျဖစ္ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ဗမာစစ္တပ္က ၀ တပ္မေတာ္ကုိ တိုက္ခိုက္မည္ ဆုိပါက သွ်မ္းျပည္တပ္ေတာ္ SSA-N တပ္ဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္ ဦးစြာတိုက္ခိုက္ရမည္ျဖစ္သည္ဟုလည္းဆုိ၏။

NDA-K ဒီမိုကေရစီသစ္တပ္မေတာ္ - ကခ်င္ မွာမူ UWSA ၀ တပ္ဖြဲ႕၊ MNDAA ကိုးကန္႕၊ NDAA-ESS မိုင္းလား တပ္ဖြဲ႕တို႕ႏွင့္ PDF စစ္ေရးမဟာမိတ္ဖြဲ႕ထားေသာ္လည္း နယ္ေျမထိစပ္မႈမ႐ွိျခင္း၊ ကခ်င္အမ်ဳိးသားခ်င္းျဖစ္သည့္ KIO/ KIA ႏွင့္လည္း ပဋိပကၡ႐ွိျခင္းတို႕ေၾကာင့္၊ စစ္အစိုးရ အင္အားသံုးတုိက္ခုိက္လာလွ်င္ ကခ်င္အဖြဲ႕ပထမဆုံး ရင္ဆိုင္ႏိုင္ဘြယ္႐ွိေၾကာင္း - ေျပာဆိုေနၾကသည္။

ေက်းလက္ေတာ႐ြာမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးၿပီးေနာက္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္မႈ ထပ္မံက်ဴးလြန္

Type your summary here.



ေက်းလက္ေတာ႐ြာမီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးၿပီးေနာက္ စစ္အစိုးရတပ္ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္မႈ ထပ္မံက်ဴးလြန္
ေသာၾကာေန႕၊ 07 ၾသဂုတ္လ 2009 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
E-mail Print
စစ္အစုိးရတပ္မ်ား သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္းေက်း႐ြာ ၁၀ ေက်ာ္ (အိမ္ေျခ ၃၀၀ ေက်ာ္) မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးၿပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ေဒသခံ ေတာင္သူအမ်ဳိးသမီးတဦးအား အုပ္စုလိုက္ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း သွ်မ္းျပည္အလယ္ပိုင္း သတင္းရပ္ကြက္ကဆိုသည္။

ၾသဂတ္စ္ ၂ ရက္ေန႕က မိုင္းကိုင္ၿမ႕နယ္ ဟမ္းငိုင္းအေျခစိုက္ ခမယ ၅၁၄ မွ ဒုဗိုလ္ျမင့္သန္း ဦးေဆာင္သည့္ အင္အား ၂၅ ေယာက္ႏွင့္အတူ လမ္းျပအျဖစ္ SSA ခြဲထြက္ ဗိုလ္မိုင္းဇင့္ (လက္နက္ခ်) အဖြဲ႕မွ စိုင္းေ႐ြးဦးေဆာင္သည့္ အင္အား ၁၄ ေယာက္ (စုစုေပါင္း အင္အား ၃၉ ေယာက္) တို႕ လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕ အေ႐ွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ တတ္ေမာက္ ေက်း႐ြာအုပ္စု ေနာင္ပုတ္ ႐ြာ၌ ၀င္ေရာက္တည္းခိုစဥ္ တပ္ၾကပ္ႀကီးတင္ေအးႏွင့္ တပည့္ ၄ ေယာက္ ႐ြာမွ မိုင္၀က္ခန္႕ေ၀းသည့္ ယာခင္းဘက္ ဟင္းသီး ဟင္း႐ြက္႐ွာထြက္ရာ ယာခင္းေပါင္းျမက္႐ွင္းေနသည့္ စိုင္းၾသဒ (နာမည္အရင္းမဟုတ္) အသက္ ၂၃ ႏွစ္၊ ဇနီး နန္းႏြံ (နာမည္ အရင္းမဟုတ္) အသက္ ၂၀ တို႕ႏွစ္ဦးႏွင့္ေတြ႕ဆုံ၍ လင္ျဖစ္သူ စိုင္းၾသဒအား သွ်မ္းသူပုန္ဟုစြပ္စြဲၿပီး ႀကိးႏွင့္တုပ္ကာ ဇနီးသည္အား ၎၏ ေ႐ွ႕ေမွာက္တြင္ အုပ္စုလိုက္ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ခဲ့သည္ဟုဆုိ၏။

အေၾကာင္းစံုသိသည့္ အမည္မေဖၚလိုသူ ပင္လံုေရာက္လူငယ္တဦးက -“က်ေနာ္တို႕ဘက္က ႐ြာေတြကို အခုလ ၅ ရက္ ေန႕ေနာက္ဆံုးထားၿပီး ၿမိဳ႕ဘက္ေျပာင္းေ႐ႊ႕ခိုင္းတယ္။ အထက္ အမိန္႕လား၊ ႐ြာသူ/သားေတြကုိ သက္သက္ အာဏာျပ အႏိုင္က်င့္တာလားေတာ့မသိဘူး။ ႐ြာမေျပာင္းရင္ မီး႐ႈိ႕ပစ္မယ္၊ ဘာညာ ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္တယ္၊ ႐ြာသားေတြ ေၾကာက္႐ြံ႕စိုးရိမ္ ေသာကေရာက္ေနခ်ိန္မွာ က်ေနာ့္ သူငယ္ခ်င္းရဲ႕ဇနီးကို စစ္သားေတြ မုဒိမ္းထပ္က်င့္တာဘဲ” - ဟု သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္အား ေျပာျပ၏။

စိုင္းၾသဒအား သွ်မ္းသူပုန္ဟုဆိုကာ ယာတဲတိုင္၌ ႀကိဳးတုပ္ၿပီး ေမ့ေမ်ာလုနီးပါး ႐ုိက္ႏွက္ၿပီးဇနီးျဖစ္သူ နန္းႏြံ ကုိလည္း လင္ျဖစ္သူ၏ ေ႐ွ႕ေမွာက္ပင္ ညေန ၅ နာရီမွ မိုးခ်ဳပ္သည္အထိ အုပ္စုလိုက္ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္း ေျပာပါသည္။

“တခ်ဳိ႕ေက်း႐ြာေတြ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးခံရတာလဲေတြ႕ေနေတာ့ ေၾကာက္ေနၾကတယ္၊ အဲဒီအေတာအတြင္းမွာဘဲ ႐ြာေတြကုိ ၿမိဳ႕အနီးအနားေျပာင္းဖို႕ အမိန္႕ထုတ္ထားတာ႐ွိေတာ့ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္တဲ့ကိစၥ အထက္ကိုသြားတိုင္တန္းဖို႕ မရဲၾကဘူးေလ၊ ႐ြာသူႀကီးကုိလဲ သွ်မ္းသူပုန္ေတြကို ေထာက္ပံ့တယ္လို႕ ဗမာ စစ္တပ္ကစြပ္စြဲ ႀကိမ္းေမာင္းထားေတာ့ တရားဥပေဒနဲ႕ ျပစ္ဒဏ္ စီရင္ဖို႕ ဘယ္မွာ႐ွိေတာ့မတုန္း” - ဟု ဆို၏။

တတ္ေမာက္ ေက်း႐ြာအုပ္စုသည္ လဲခ်ား - မိုင္းကိုင္ (ေတာင္ႀကီး - လြိဳင္လင္ - ပင္လံု - လဲခ်ား - မိုင္းကိုင္ - လား႐ႈိး) ကားလမ္း၏ အေ႐ွ႕ဘက္ျခမ္း၊ လဲခ်ားၿမိဳ႕ အေ႐ွ႕ေျမာက္ဘက္ တြင္႐ွိသည္။ တတ္ေမာက္႐ြာႏွင့္ထုိေဒသတ၀ိုက္ ေက်း႐ြာ မ်ားကုိ သွ်မ္းသူပုန္ႏွင့္ ဆက္သြယ္ သတင္းေပးပို႕သည္ဟု ဆုိကာ အစိုးရစစ္တပ္က ေက်း႐ြာ ၁၀ ေက်ာ္အား ဂ်ဴလိုင္လ ၂၇ မွ ၃၁ ရက္ေန႕အထိ မီး႐ႈိ႕ဖ်က္ဆီးခဲ့သည္။

.ရွမး္ရာဇဝင္လူမ်ိဳးအေႀကာင္း

Type your summary here.

........ရွမး္ရာဇဝင္လူမ်ိဳးအေႀကာင္း

---------
- Hide quoted text -

To: mlslucdu@unhcr.org


The Shan who call themselves the Tai are found primarily the
Shan State of Burma. The Burmese word "Shan" (referring to the Tai) is
variously spelled Syam, Syaam, and Syan in the inscriptions of the
Pagan period (1044-1334) and in old Burmese texts. In modern Burma the
Tai people are called Shan, as are various other branches of the Tai
people of Shan state in Burma.
The Shan are a branch of the Tai race. Historical accounts maintain
that Upper Burma was the place of the Pyu and the Shan before the
establishment of the Pagan kingdom by Anawratha (1044-1077). In Yunnan
the Mao kingdom of the Shan existed until it was subdued by the Ming
court. From that base they often sent forays into Upper Burma and
Assam. Later they had Shan colonies in some parts of southern and
northern Shan state, Kachin state, and Sagaing Division in Upper
Burma, and all these colonies were under the suzerainty of a Mao
chief. Eventually the Shans also controlled almost all Upper Burma.
This Shan period of Burmese history lasted from about 1300 until 1540.
The Shan of Yunnan, however, were subdued by the Chinese after three
successive wars (1441-1448). The final destruction of Shan power in
Yunnan occurred in 1604 when the Chinese troops swooped down on
Mongmao. After the collapse of the Mao kingdom in Yunnan, the power of
the Shan in Burma also weakened and the group finally disintegrated
into many small Shan principalities. The development of the Shan in
Burma depended much upon the political history of Burma which
eventually divided the Shan into such groups as:

a. the Khamti Shan (the Tai in the Khamti region of Sagaing division
in Upper Burma)
b. the Mao Shan (the Tai in the Mao River valley in northern Shan state)
c. the Tai Leng (the Red Tai in Kachin state)
d. the Gum Shan (the Tai Hkun in the Kengtung district of eastern Shan state)

The Shan (Tai) are spread throughout Burma, in Shan state, Kachin
state, and Sagaing division. The states and divisions in Burma were
fixed during the British administration period (1885-1948). In the
time of the Burmese kings, the Shan (Tai) areas were named "Saint
Taing," "Kambawza Taing," "Haripunza Taing," "Khemawara Taing," etc.
In the British administration period (1885-1948), Burma was
reorganized into states, divisions, and hill tracts. The present Shan
state was formed during the British period, becoming the "Federated
Shan States" in 1922. The rest of the Shan areas in Burma were put
into Sagaing division, Myitkyina, Bhamo, and Putao districts. The
geographical barriers, difficulties in communication, and the system
of administration since the times of the Burmese kings separated the
Shan from each other, resulting in each group developing its own way
of culture and tradition. Thus, those Shan who settled in the Khamti
region are called Khamti Shan, those in the Mao River valley are Mao
Shan, and those in eastern Shan state are the Hkuns.

A Brief History of Tai(Shan)

Shan” comes from the Burmese rendering of “Siam” or “Siem” the name
by which the ancient Khmer or Cambodians call the Tai or Thai People.
The Shan are members of the Tai Speaking Peoples who today live in
northeastern India, Burma & the Federated Shan States, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam and south & southwestern China. In 1957, Premier
Chou-en-lai said that there are over 100 million Tai or Dai Speaking
Peoples in the People’s Republic of China.

Historically Shan or Tai Kingdoms & Principalities have stretched from
northeast India through Southeast Asia and into south & southwestern
China and the Shan today are linguistically and culturally closely
related to modern Thailand and Laos.

In the late 19th century the Shan Principalities on the Shan Plateau
were annexed by the British following their conquest of the Burmese
kingdom of Mandalay and British Burma then consisted of the Shan
States, “Burma Proper” and the Frontier Areas.

Administratively, the Shan States as a Protectorate ruled themselves &
had autonomy in internal affairs separate from “Burma Proper” which
was governed directly by the British Governor in Rangoon – and indeed
Banknotes of British Burma were inscribed in English, Shan & Burmese.

After the end of WWII the Shan Princes & Representatives in 1946
convened the First Panglong Conference in the Shan States attended
also by Leaders & Representatives of the British Burma Frontier Areas.
A second Conference was called in 1947 to which the Burmese came as
Observers and it was at this second Conference that General Aung San
of the Burmese tabled a proposal to include “Burma Proper” in forming
a Union. In the vote that followed, the Shan narrowly by a margin of
51:49%, voted for the Union of equal partnership and because of this
decision take by the Shan, the Chin, Kachin & Karenni also ratified
the Panglong Agreement which also specified the Right of Secession – a
Right that is also recognized in the 1948 Union of Burma Constitution,
Chapter X specifically stating the Shan State’s Right to Secede from
the Union of Burma after 10 years.

Following the second Burmese military coup in 1962, the Shan State has
lost all its autonomy and is now under Nazi-like occupation of the
Burmese SPDC regime. In 2000, 2004 & 2006, Shan Leaders secretly and
clandestinely held meetings and canvassed the people of the Se-Viengs
or Counties of the Shan lands resulting in 2000 & 2004 in a 48:14
voting for independence and that majority rising to 54:8 or 87%
majority for independence in 2006.

On April 17, 2005 President Prince Hso-khan-pha of Yawnghwe, under
instructions from the Shan Leadership inside occupied Federated Shan
States (consisting of Shan, Palaung, Pa-O, Kokang States and other
ethnic communities), made a Declaration of Independence and the Shan
Government is now working to fulfill its Mandate for Independence and
to deliver humanitarian relief to the victims of Burmese SPDC
atrocities and war crimes.


SHAN STATE

Geographical Features:

LOCATION

The Shan States is situated in the north-eastern part of Burma,
bordering the People's Republic of China on the North and East, the
Lao People's Democratic Republic on the East, the Kingdom of Thailand
on South and East, the Karenni state on the South and the Union of
Burma (Myanmar) on the west. It is positioned at Latitude North 19
degrees 20 minutes and South 24 degrees 9 minutes and between
Longitude East 96 degrees 13 minutes and West 101 degrees 9 minutes.

THE LAND

The Shan State is a high plateau with an elevation of 5,000-6,000
feet above sea level. It is covered with dense evergreen forests,
pine, streams, rivers and waterfalls making the country a natural and
beautiful land. It lies at an average of 3,000 to 4,000 feet above sea
level and the highest point is Mount Loilaeng (8,777 ft ) in Mong Yai,
Loi Parng Nao (8,408 ft ) in Kentung, Loi tzang (8,129 ft) in Mong
Kung township.

The Salween ( Nam Khong in Shan) River is the principal river of
the Shan State. It has its source in the Tibetan Himalayas and flows
southwards through China and enters the Shan State, dividing it into
two parts, then passes the Karenni state, Karen State and Mon State
finally joining the Indian Ocean at the Gulf of Martaban near the town
of Moulmein. Many tributaries of the Salween, such as the Nam Taeng,
Nam Parng and Nam Nim all enter the Salween near the Town of Kun Hing
(Kun Haeng: thousand islets) where many islets by the hundreds are
formed. In the east there are the Nam Ma, Nam Kha and Nam Sim which
flow into the Salween. The Mekong ( Nam Khawng in Shan) serves as the
boundary between Laos and the Shan State for a length of 120 miles,
then flows through Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam into the Gulf of
Thailand.



Nam Loei and Nam Kok, which flows through Kengtung, all join the
Mekong. Nam Mao (Shweli in Burnese) and the Nam Tu in the north flow
into the Irrawaddy. The Nam Zawgyi, Nam Tamphat and Nam Bilu in the
south are all famous by their capacities as natural waterways. Because
these rivers flow through deep valleys of mountain ranges, many rapids
and waterfalls can be found throughout the Shan State. Joung-ang, the
biggest waterfall on the Nam Taeng can be found near the town of Keng
Tawng in Mong Nai Twnship.
The second largest one is Om-pu on the Nam Parng River in the Shan
State of Monghsu. Among Shan State's numerous waterfalls, the only one
so far used for hydroelectric power is the Marnsarm Falls on the Nam
Yao River in Hsipaw Twnship. Marnsarm Falls generates enough power for
the surrounding towns and the Bawdwin Mines at Panghai, Namtu
Township. Waterfalls large and small can be found on most of the
rivers.
The inland lake of Inlay (Nong Hai Ya in Shan)14 miles long and 7
miles wide, is noted for the floating villages and floating vegetable
gardens, silk-weaving and fantastic leg-rowers. Hot and cold
underground springs are countless and some have been developed as rest
and recreation places. Primitive hard rocks that contain numerous
kinds of mineral ores waiting for discovery and development form the
Shan Plateau and its southern continuation into the Tenasserim.

Map references: Southeast Asia
Capital: Taunggyi (Tonti in Shan)

NATIONAL SYMBOL
The Shan symbol is a tiger. The Shan flag consists of yellow,
green and red stripes with a white circle in the middle. Yellow stands
for Buddhism and that the Shan are origin of the yellow race(The
Mongoloid peoples). Green symbolizes the verdant landscape, a warm
climate and farming. Red symbolizes the Shan's courage. The white disk
is for the moon, the Shan’s pure and peaceful spirit. It is forbidden
to use this flag in Burma and Thailand.














Area: 62,500 square mile (160,000 square kilometers)
Population: About 7-8 million (est.)

CLIMATE
The Shan plateau located in the northeastern part of Burma is
generally cooler than the rest of Burma and Thailand, since it is
mountainous and higher in elevation. There is a cool, dry season from
November to February, and a hot season or summer from February to May,
a hot,rainy season from June to October.
One town can reach over 100F while just a few hours drive away 77F
is normal. Coldness in winter brings the temperature down to 40F in
hill-station towns and 60F on the plains. Annual rainfall averages
between 40-60 inches. Flash flood of rivers and streams occur during
the rainy season causing landslides and floods in the lowlands.

VEGETATION
In the areas where the elevation is over 4,000 feet, pine and
evergreen forest can be found in abundance; teak and woods of ‘Shorea
Robusta’ and ‘diptercarpus grandiflora’ abound in the hot lowlands.
Valuable woods such as teak, padauk or pterocarpus, sandalwood and
ironwood cover over 42,210 square miles. Mong Mit, Hsipaw, Mong Kung,
Tong Lao, Mawk-mai, Lawk-sawk, Mong-nai, Keng-tawng, Keng-kham,
Pa-lai, Mong-ton, Mong-sat are all hardwood and teak producing areas.
All kinds of vegetables and fruits are grown according to each
region’s soil and climatic conditions. Many forest products such as
lac, cutch, honey, beewax and wild orchids can be found.

NATURAL RESOURCES

Shan State is rich in natural resources.The majority land surface
of the Shan State is covered with primitive hard rocks and mineral
ores such as silver, lead, gold, copper, iron, tin, wolfram, tungsten
and manganese, have been discovered. The Burmese government is
exploiting mineral developments.For example, Bawdwin-Namtu silver and
lead deposit in the north is one of the largest in the world. Local
Chinese traders discovered it in the 14th century. In 1909 the British
started to take over under the name of "Burma Corporation Limited."
After the Union of Burma was established, it was registered as a joint
venture with the Burmese government under the name "Burma Corporation
Limited 1951". In 1965 the Burmese government nationalized the whole
enterprise. The newly discovered silver, nickel and tungsten deposits
are found in the Naungkieo township area called Yadana Theingi Mine,
where produces silver and lead sent to Namtu to be refined.

The Bawsai Mines in the south produces lead and pyrites. In the
surrounding hills of the southern town of Kalaw, dolomite, pyrites,
Fluorides can be found in abundance. At Loi Ma, near another southern
town of Hpe-Khoung, lead deposits remain undeveloped. Besides these
known deposits the geological survey discovered in 1963, there also is
tin and wolfram deposits at Pangpek near the Shan State capital of
Taunggyi, estimated at over 63 million tons. Diamond is found in the
environs of Mong mit and gems in Namhkan Township.
Many undiscovered or unexplored natural resources in the Shan
State still remain hidden to be used later for the development of the
Shan State and its people. Mogok (Mong Kut in Shan) which is world
famous for its rubies and sapphires lies within the State of Mong Mit
in the north but has been nationalized and drawn into the Mandalay
Division of Burma.

PEOPLE

Ethnic groups: It is composed of more than 20 ethnic national groups
in Shan state. the majority of whom are Shan (Tai). It is a
multiethnic nation and the main ethnic groups are: Shan (Tai),
Palawng, Pa-O, Kachin, Wa, Lahu, Akha and Kokang Chinese.
Shan or Tai (Thai Yai in Thai): 68% of the total population are Shan
and therefore Shan are the dominant ethnic group. Most Shan are
farmers and livestock breeders who predominantly live in the valleys
and lowlands.
Palawng or Ta-arng: About 7% of the total population are the Palaungs
who call themselves “Ta-arng”. They are concentrated in the northern
mountainous region of Namhsan or Palaung Tawngpeng State. They are
mostly dependent upon tea plantations producing English tea and
pickled tea (Chinese tea) for consumers throughout the Union. Due to
socio-political upheavals, some of them migrated into the central and
southern mountains of the Shan State using their Knowledge about tea
planting for their livelihood.
Pa-o: The Pa-o ethnic group is also about 7% and are found in the
Southern part of the Shan State. The Pa-o grow agricultural cash crops
such as potatoes, cabbages, garlic and especially the cheroot-leaves
for local and Burmese cheroot industries.
Wa: About 5% of the population are the Wa people. They inhabit the
eastern mountains along the Salween and the areas bordering China. The
Wa make their living on the harsh mountain slopes and valleys using
the old slash and burn methods.

Kachins: They are found in the northern region where the Shan State
borders with the Kachin State. The Kachin breed livestock and grow
vegetables, corn and rice in remote mountainous villages.
Dhanu: These people are settled in the lowlands on the western slopes
of the Shan Plateau bordering with Burma. The Dhanu work on their
paddy fields and vegetable farms.
Intha-s: These people live on the Floating villages and vegetable
plots in the largest inland lake called Inlay where silk weaving and
local handicrafts have been their home industry for generations.
Lahu: They are found east of the Salween along the mountainous border
region between the Shan State and Thailand.
Akha: Akha mostly live in the border areas between the Shan State and Laos.

Kokangnese: Kokangnese are found in the Northeastern Shan State close
to the Yunnan Province. They farm, breed livestock and conduct cross
border trading with China.
Padaung or Kayan: Padaung settled in the south around Mong Pai
Township where farming is their livelihood. Their womenfolk are known
as ‘giraffenecks’ because of the brass or silver rings worn round
their necks as adornments.
Lisu or Lisaw: Lisu are scattered in the north and southern Shan State
remote mountainous regions on large and permanent settlements, because
of their accustomed slash and burn farming traditions.
Yang-lam: Yang-lam are found around Ming-su and Kesi-wansam in the
central region living on primitive farming.
Liju: Liju are found around Kokang State in the north. They rely on
livestock raising and hill-farming.
Chinese and Indian immigrants are found throughout the country and are
mostly traders, shopkeepers and money-lenders. Some also live on
farming and livestock breeding too.
Burmese or Burmans: Burmese are scattered throughout Shan State as
government employees in offices, schools and administrative centers.
They also came in to find work as manual laborers and hired hands
doing various jobs in towns and in the countryside. Many ethnic groups
such as the En, Dhanor, Palay, and others can be found making their
living on primitive farms with contentment. All the different national
groups have lived harmoniosly together for thousand of years sharing
hardships and prosperity in times of peace and war.

RELIGIONS

The Buddhist religion, spread into the Shan society nine years
after the Lord Buddha attained His enlightenment (Mong Mao Chronicle)
and came to Loi Seng monastery to teach Buddhism among the Shans
(Dai/Tai) people. The Loi Seng monastery is still at the same place
situated near the Mong Mao district town known to the Chinese as Ruili
today. Naturally, Buddhist religion emphasizes respect to the elderly.
It became a tradition of the Shans since then. Religious learning,
self-training through meditation, reflection on one's deeds and the
study and the assessment of the Law of Nature as Buddhism teaches made
them acquire wisdom. The younger generation's respect for the elders'
wisdom also became a tradition.

The Shan believe in spirits, which can cause good or evil in a
person’s life and must be appeased. They also believe in reincarnation
and that the good or evil done in one’s life will determine their
status and fate in the next life. In order to atone for wrongs done, a
person must participate in merit-building activities, such as
suffering a punishment of some sort or doing good deeds such as giving
to and worshipping the monks. The lowest form of life is to be an
animal such as a dog or a cat, and the highest is to retire into a
state of passionless peace.
All Shan boys about 12 years old enter the novicehood for a short
period of time. Some become monks again later for a longer period of
time( about 20 years old to enter the monkshood). They believe that
the way to happiness it to renounce the world and carnal desires. They
also believe that the physical and the spiritual are closely
intertwined.

Languages: The Shan language is part of the Tai languages group of the
Tai-Kadai language family, and is related to Thai and Lao. The spoken
language are Shan, English and Burmese. Minority ethnic groups have
their own languages. Tai with dialects varying for each group.
literature: The Shan have their own alphabet related to ancient
Sanskrit. Shan, like Thai, is built on 5 different tones(Chinese Shan
have 6). The Shan Phonology Committee including the representatives of
the Tai long,Tai Mao, Tai Khamti, and Tai Hkun devised a Common Shan
Script in 1974. For precision in writing the various Shan languages,
the committee decided to have six tone marks in the Common Shan
Script.

CULTURE

The Shan have a rich cultural heritage and are a proud and
sophisticated race. They are a gentle and peaceful people. Many of
their customs are related to the Chinese and the Thai. They have their
own centuries old literature, art, agriculture and history. Tattooing
is common among Shan men. The tattoos are often Buddhist connotations
or signs, placed there in an effort to ward off evil spirits and
protect the person from danger. Tattooing is also considered a sign of
manhood in Shan society.
Instead of shaking hands, the Shan usually greet with a "wai", or
placing the palms together in front of the face or chest and say “ Mai
Soong Kha ”. The one lowest in status should initiate the greeting.
How high the palms are placed reflects the status of the person being
greeted in relation to the person greeting. In addressing each other,
the Shan use titles (such as "Pa: grandmother", "Loong: uncle", “Pi:
elder”, "Nawng ying: little sister", etc.) to express the person’s
status or relationship to others. It is not acceptable to show
affection between the sexes in public.The Shan are traditionally
wet-rice cultivators, shopkeepers, and artisans. Most Shan are
Theravada Buddhists and/or observe their traditional religion, which
is related to animist practices.

 
 

Blogger


ေလာကဇာတ္ခံု ၊ ဤလူ့ဘံု၌
မ်ိဳးစံုကၾက ၊မာန္မာနႏွင့္

ငါကရာဇာ ၊ ငါဟာသူေဌး ၊ ငါပေဂးဟု

ငါေသြးတက္ၾကြ ၊လူ့ဗာလတို့ မ်ားလွျဖာျဖာ

အ၀ိဇၨာႏွင့္ ၊ တဏွာဘီလူး ၊ အေမွာင့္ပူး၍

က်ဴးက်ဴးေက်ာ္ေက်ာ္ ၊ ဂုဏ္ကိုေဖၚလွ်က္

ေမာ္ေမာ္ ေမာက္ေမာက္ ၊ ငါတစ္ေယာက္သာ

မိုးေအာက္တစ္လႊား ၊ ေရႊကိုယ္လားဟု

ထင္မွားမလြဲ ၊ သို့စဥ္စြဲလည္း ...........

ဇာတ္ပြဲျပီးက ၊ ေျပဖံုးခ်ေသာ္

သုဘရာဇာ ၊ ေျမေအာက္မွာပင္

ဘာသာလူမ်ိဳး ၊ ခ်ိန္မထိုးပဲ

ပုတ္သိုးခႏၶာ ၊ ျမဳပ္ရရွာသည္

ဘယ္မွာ ငါဟု ရွိအံ့နည္း ...... ။
.....